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HDFS 2400 Exam 1 Study GuideDr. Roy Fish, LecturerExam 1 will cover a sampling of topics from chapters 1-6. There will be 10 multiple choice questions per chapter (60 questions total). Many of the questions will be similar to those encountered on your online quizzes. This study guide highlights the sections / topics in your text (2nd edition) from which the exam questions are taken. It should significantly help you to narrow your focus as you prepare for the exam. You may also use the “Exam 1 Study Guide Q&A discussion board” to collaborate with classmates on working through the study guide. Chapter 1: History, Theory, and Research Strategiesa. developmental science field, p.3a. a field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the life spanb. continuous or discontinuous development, p.4a. continuous development is a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin withb. discontinuous development is a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at a different timei. takes place in qualitative stages; such as climbing a staircase and that every steps is a rapid transformation. In other words, change is fairly sudden rather than gradual and ongoingc. factors that shape development (One Course of Development or Many? Relative Influence of Nature and Nurture?), p.4-5 (3 questions)a. Course of development is many-layered and complexb. People grow up in different contexts which results in different intellectual capacities, social skills, and feelings about self and otherc. Both nature and nurture affect developmenti. Stability- stress the importance of heredityii. Environment-early experiencesiii. Plasticity- change is possibled. resilience, p.8 Box: Resiliencea. the ability to adapt effectively in the face of threats to developmentb. affected by personal characteristics, a warm parental relationship, social support outside the immediate family, and community resources and opportunitiese. be able to recognize/distinguish among the major theories of development, p.22, Table 1.5a. Psychoanalytic Perspective- psychosexual and psychosocial development takes place in stagesi. discontinuous, one course, nature and nurtureii. Early experiences set the course for later developmentb. Behaviorism and social learning theory- development involves an increase in learned behaviorsi. Continuous, many possible courses, nurtureii. Both early and later experiences are importantc. Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory- cognitive development takes place in stagesi. Discontinuous, one course, nature and nurtureii. Both early and later experiences are importantd. Information processing- children and adults change gradually in perception, attention, memory, and problem solving skillsi. Continuous, once course, both nature and nurtureii. Both early and later experiences are importante. Ethology and evolutionary developmental psychology- children and adults gradually develop a wider range of adaptive behaviors. However, sudden changes can occuri. Continuous AND discontinuous, one course, nature and nurtureii. Evolution, hereditary, and early experiences set the course of later developmentf. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory- language development and schooling leads to stagewisechangesi. Both continuous AND discontinuous, many possible courses, nature and nurtureii. Both early and later experiences are importantg. Ecological systems theory-i. Many courses, nature and nurtureii. Early and later experiences are importanth. Lifespan perspective- new skills occuri. Continuous AND discontinuous, many courses, nature and nurtureii. Early and later experiences are importantf. be able to recognize common research methods, p.23 (Table 1.6) – p.26a. Systematic Observationi. Naturalistic - behavior in natural contextsii. Structured - behavior in a laboratory, same conditions for everyoneb. Self-Reportsi. Clinical interview - investigator obtains a complete account of the participant’s thoughtsii. Structured interview - each participant is asked the same questions in the same wayc. Case Studyi. Full picture of an individual’s psychological functioning obtained by interviews, observations, and test scoresd. Ethnographyi. Researcher tries to capture the culture’s unique values and social processesg. correlational design/correlational coefficient, p.27a. Correlational design- researchers gather information on individuals, generally in natural life circumstances, without altering their experiences. Look at the relationship between a participant’s characteristics and their behavior or developmentb. Correlational coefficient- number that describes how two variables are associated with each otherh. experimental design, independent versus dependent variables, p.28a. permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people to two or more treatment conditions i. independent- the one the investigator expects to change another variableChapter 2: Biological and Environmental Foundationsa. phenotypes versus genotypes, p.36a) Phenotype- observable characteristicsb) Genotype- genetic informationb. meiosis (what happens during it), p.37a) gametes formed; halves the number of chromosomes normally present in body cellsc. Boy or Girl?, p.37a) 22/23 pair of chromosomes are matching pairs, the 23rd consists of the sex chromosomes d. monozygotic versus dizygotic offspring, p.37-38a) monozygotic-identical twins: zygote that started to duplicate separates into two clustersof cellsb) dizygotic-fraternal: release and fertilization of two ovae. alleles, homozygous and heterozygous pairings, p.38a) each form of a geneb) if two alleles are alike, the child is homozygous; if they differ, then the child is heterozygousf. X-linked disorders (what are they and who they effect), p.39a) Carried out on the x-chromosomesb) Affects males mostly because their chromosomes do not matchg. adopted children (outcomes), p.44-45a) has more learning and emotional difficulties than other childrenh. benefits of educating girls in developing countries, p.48 Box: Worldwide Education of Girlsa) communicative skillsi. heritability estimates and kinship studies, p.54a) heritability estimates- measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factorsb) Kinship studies- compare the characteristics of family membersj. how nature and nurture work

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OSU HDFS 2400 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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