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CHAPTERS 1 3 Which nutrients are macronutrients which are micronutrients Final Exam Guide o Macronutrients 1 Carbohydrates 2 Proteins 3 Lipids Fats 4 Water o Micronutrients 1 Vitamins 2 Minerals 3 General Functions of Nutrients o 1 Provide energy o 2 Provide structure o 3 Regulate body processes How many kcal gram each macronutrient provides o Carbohydrates 4 kcal gram o Protein 4 kcal gram o Fat 9 kcal gram o Water 1 0 1 5 mL kcal expended o Alcohol 7 kcal gram ABCD s of Dietary Assessment o A nthropometric Measures o B iochemical Test measurement of human psychical dimensions measures a nutrient or metabolite in one or more body o C linical observations evaluating the characteristics of health that can be fluid s seen during a physical exam o D ietary intake measure dietary intake through direct observation recall questionnaires etc 5 methods for assessing dietary intake o 1 Direct observation clinical research labs Strengths good measure of what you actually eat Weaknesses bad measure of what you typically eat o 2 Diet History Strengths what people typically eat Weaknesses may forget misreport items or lie to look better skilled interviewer necessary o 3 24 Hour Recall Single recall Strengths o Best for large population studies of average intake o Best for comparing the mean intake of 2 groups o Best to assess an individual s actual intake o Quick o Relatively inexpensive o Low respondent burden o Low literacy requirement Weaknesses Multiple recall Strengths o Doesn t measure usual intake of an individual o Estimates individual s usual consumption o Estimates long term intake o Quick o Relatively inexpensive o Low respondent burden o Low literacy requirement Weaknesses o Subject to memory lapses bias o The more days necessary the less efficient it is o 4 Diet Record Strengths Single day estimate average intake of a group Multiple days estimate usual intake of an individual Less prone to memory lapse Weaknesses A lot of subject burden Need to be literate May change usual intake o Due to burden of recording everything o Due to feeling of needing to impress Expensive o 5 Food Frequency Questionnaire Strengths Low subject burden Low relative costs Weaknesses Best for long term large cohort studies studying the relationship between diet and disease 6 Core Nutritional Concepts ABCDMV Ranking of individual s intake not usual intake o A dequacy foods chosen provide all the essential nutrients fiber and energy in amounts sufficient to support growth and maintain health o Balance of o Calorie Control of o Nutrient and minerals and relatively few kcal Nutrient dense foods D ensity ratio of nutrient content to energy content provide substantial amounts of vitamins food groups energy sources and other nutrients Nutrient density can change depending on how the food is prepared o M oderation o V ariety AMDR for Adults not too much not too little important within and among foods groups Macronutrient Carbohydrate Fat Protein Dietary Guidelines DG Total Energy Intake EI 45 65 20 35 10 35 o 1 Maintain calorie balance o 2 Consume nutrient dense foods o Physical Activity Recommendations 150 min week of moderate aerobic physical activity or 75 min week of vigorous aerobic physical activity o Foods Food Component Recommendations Increase whole grains fruits veggies Increase nutrient dense foods Food Components to Reduce Reduce sugar sweetened beverage intake Sodium intake to 2300 mg day o 1500 mg day if 51 years African American or have high blood pressure diabetes or chronic kidney disease Saturated fat to 10 of calories Dietary cholesterol 300 mg day Trans fatty acid consumption Calories from solid fats and added sugars o Solid fats includes saturated no double bonds and trans fats Refined grains Alcohol if consumed do so in moderation How long it takes for your stomach to tell your brain you re full o 20 minutes MyPlate for Older Adults o o Nutrient density is key as calorie needs are lower Not nutrient needs o Examples of different foods readily available affordable and convenient o Includes icons for regular physical activity includes household chores and adequate fluid intake o Pictures are of whole grains o Mentions oils and adds spices as tool to limit sodium intake o Protein examples fish poultry legumes nuts o Fork Knife Be attentive enjoy food social interactions Definitions o DRI EAR RDA AI UL Dietary Reference Intakes Estimated Average Requirement Recommended Dietary Allowance EAR amount that meets the DRI reflect nutrient intake levels for dietary adequacy and optimal nutrition nutrient requirements of 50 of people in a life stage gender group RDA amount that meets the needs of most people 98 in a life stage gender group EAR 2 standard deviations EAR the amount thought to be adequate for most people to maintain good health intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for nearly all persons in the general population AI when there s insufficient evidence to set UL highest level of daily nutrient Tolerable Upper Intake Level Adequate Intake o Daily Value provides a frame of reference by comparing a serving s nutrient amount to that recommended for daily consumption adequate amounts and must be consumed in the diet nutrients that are not synthesized by the body in o Essential nutrients Physical Chemical Processes of Digestion o Physical chewing peristalsis and segmentation Peristaltic contractions by longitudinal muscle propelling action Segmentation action by circular muscle squeezing action o Chemical mixing of food with gastric juices and enzymes Assisting Organs Their Functions o Assisting Organs secrete juices into GI tract produces bile Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder ingestion of fat Function of Bile Pancreas moistens food is 1st digestive step stores bile releases it when stimulated by secretes trypsinogen chymotrypsinogen breaks up globs of fat to smaller pieces increasing surface area and o Bile allowing fat and water to blend Function of the Lymphatic System what it transports o Lymphatic system surrounding cells and large particles such as products of fat absorption system of vessels and lymph that accepts fluid Fat soluble vitamins circulated Bypasses the liver before delivery to the bloodstream near the neck o Bypasses the liver eventually joins the blood system Role of Hydrochloric Acid HCl in Digestion o Denatures protein so enzymes can attack the peptide bonds o Converts proenzyme pepsinogen secreted by glands in stomach lining to pepsin o Kills

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NU HSCI 1105 - Final Exam Guide

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