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Music Appreciation Final Study Guide Elements of MusicReview Key Points for Chapters 1-7 Chapter 1:● A melody is the line, or tune, in music● Each melody is unique is contour and in range○ Contour: how it moves up and down○ Range: span of pitches● An interval is the distance between any two pitches. A melody that moves in small, connected intervals is conjunct, while one that moved by leaps is disjunct● The units that make up a melody are phrases; phrases end in resting places called cadences● A melody may be accompanied by a secondary melody, or a countermelody○ Countermelody: an accompanying melody sounded against the principle melodyChapter 2:● Rhythm is what moves music forward in time● Meter, marked off in measures, organizes the beats (the basic units) in music.○ Meter: organizing patterns of rhythmic pulses ○ Measures: rhythmic groups or metrical unit that contains a fixed number of beats, divided on the musical staff by bar lines■ measure lines: vertical lines through the staff that separate metric units or measures○ Beats: regular pulses that divide time into equal segments● Measures often begin with a strong downbeat○ Downbeat: first beat of the measure, the strongest in the meter● Simple meter---duple, triple and quadruple---are the most common○ Simple meter: grouping of rhythms in which the beat is subdivided into two, as a duple, triple or quadruple meters.■ Duple meter: two beats to a measure■ Triple meter: three beats to a measure■ Quadruple meter: four beats to a measure● Compound meters subdivided each beat into three, rathen than two, subbeats.● Rhythmic complexities occur with upbeats, offbeats, syncopation, and polyrhythm. ○ Upbeats: last beat if a measure, a weak beat, which anticipates the downbeat○ Offbeats: a weak beat or any pulse between beats in a measured rhythmic pattern○ Syncopation: deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat○ Polyrhythm: the simultaneous use of several rhythmic patterns or meters, common in 20th century music and in certain African musics● Additive meters are used in some world musics○ Additive meters: patterns of beats that subdivide into smaller, irregular groups; common in certain Eastern European musics● Some music is nonmetric or had an obscured pulse.○ Nonmetric: music lacking a strong sense of beat or meter, common in certain non-Western culturesChapter 3:● Harmony describes the vertical events in music, or how they sound together.○ the simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationship of intervals and chords● A chord is the simultaneous sounding of three or more pitches; chords are built from a particular scale, or sequence of pitches.○ Chord: simultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony○ Scale: series of tones in ascending or descending order; may present the notes of a key● The most common chord in Western music is a triad, which has three notes built on alternate pitches of a scale.● Most Western music is based on major or minor scales, from which melody and harmony are derived.○ Major scale: scale consisting of seven different tones that comprise a specific pattern of whole and half steps. it differs from the minor scale primarily in that its third degree is raised half a step○ Minor scale: scale consisting of seven different tones that comprise a specific pattern of whole and half steps. it differs from the major scale primarily in that its third degree is lowered half a step● The tonic is the central tone around which a melody and its harmonies are built; this principle of organization is called tonality.○ Tonic: the first note of the scale or key, do. ○ Tonality: principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale● Dissonance is created by an unstable, or discordant, combination of tones. Consonance occurs with resolution of dissonance, producing a stable or restful sound.○ Dissonance: combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution○ Consonance: concordant or harmonious combination of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability in musicChapter 4: ● An octave is the interval spanning eight notes of the scale. In Western music, the octave is divided into twelve half steps, the smallest interval used; two half steps make a whole step.○ Octave: Interval between two tones seven diatonic pitches apart; the lowernote vibrates half as fast as the upper and sounds an octave lower○ Half step: smallest interval used in the Western style system; the octave divides into twelve such intervals.● The chromatic scale is made up of these twelve half steps, while a diatonic scale is built on patterns of seven whole and half steps that form major and minor scales.○ Chromatic scale: consists of an ascending and descending sequence of semitones○ Diatonic scale: encompasses patterns of seven whole tones and semitones● A sharp is a symbol that raises a tone by half a step; a flat lowers a tone by half astep.● Other scale types are used around the world, built on different numbers of pitches and sometimes using microtones, which are intervals smaller than half steps. ● The tonic chord built on the first scale tone, is the home base to which active chords(dominant and subdominant) need to resolve.○ Active chords: chords which resolve to the tonic chord■ Dominant chord: chord built on the fifth scale step■ Subdominant chord: chord built on the fourth scale step● Composers can shift the pitch level of an entire work (transposition) or change the center, or key, during a work (modulation).○ Transposition: shifting a piece of music to a different pitch level○ Key: defines the relationship of tones with a common center or tonic. ○ Modulation: the process of changing from one key to anotherChapter 5: ● Texture refers to the interweaving of the melodic lines with harmony in music. ● The simplest texture is monophony, or single-voiced music without accompaniment.● Heterophony refers to multiple voices elaborating the same melody at the same time.● Polyphony describes a many-voiced texture based on counterpoint - one line set against another.● Homophony occurs when one melodic line is prominent over the accompanying lines or voices.● Imitation - when a melodic idea is presented in one voice, then

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Auburn MUSI 2730 - Final Study Guide

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