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World War II (1939-1945) PropagandaInfidelitySTDsGerman propaganda using sex to put a divide between Americans and BritishWhile you are awayCampaign was sexistWomen always infected menWomen loaded with diseaseWomen seducePenicillin cured most STDsReasons for continuing pandemicMobilitySocial stigmaEase of cure- people don’t take it seriouslyThings becoming untreatableUnder reporting- won’t get the appropriate fundingIncrease in asymptomatic males in 1980sInfecting other people when they don’t have symptomsUse of oral contraceptivesMovement away from condom use, until the 1980sLack of education and knowledgeHow do we prevent?Never have sexLimiting number of sexual partnersUsing condom (not 100% guarantee)STISomething that is sexually transmissibleInfers someone can get STI without having sexHIVYeast infectionHuman Papilloma Virus (HPV)- CondylomaOne of the most prevalentVirus- no cureIncubation period- 30 days but could be much longerOver 100 types of HPVAt least 30 types sexually transmissibleCan cause genital warts and/or lead to cervical cancerCan go away on ownTreatmentCryotherapy-freezing of tissuesLaser- remove wartsPodophyllum (male)- resin you paint on to wartsPreventionGardasil immunization prevents against types:6, 11-90% of genital warts16, 18-75% of cervical cancerCervical cancerDifficult to test without symptomsCan get warts anally, vaginally, orallyVaginitis-candidiasis, moniliasis, yeast infection (all the same thing)Female symptoms: whitish discharge from vagina, itchiness, burning sensation. Gradation of symptoms.Male symptoms: reddish, flaky, itchy rash on penis and/or groin.Fungus in maleSlang is jock itchIncubation period: 2-5 daysPractitioners tend to treat females onlyPing pong effect between heterosexual partnersTreatmentOTCMonistat or similar productsLotrimin for maleSteroid based ointmentCan get this without having sexCan get in mouth/throatVaginitis: Trichomoniasis (protozoa)Caused by protozoa: single celled beast with a tailFemale symptoms: yellowish vaginal discharge with bad odorMale symptoms: watery penile discharge and itchy feeling inside penisIncubation period: 2-28 daysCommon to have another STI at the same timeTreatmentFagyl for both sexes: bad drug that makes you feel nauseousChlamydiaMost common on college campusSymptomsFemale: usually nothingMale: penile discharge and stinging on urination (could be mild)NGU- non gonococcal urethritis (if not gonorrhea)Blanket termTreatment is the sameMales: infection of urethrea mainly caused by chlamydiaCan pass onto newbornsTreatmentPenicillin wont workTetracycline or similar medicationCan pass on without symptomsGonorrhea (chlamydia x10)SymptomsFemale: usually noneMale: thick white discharge and stinign sensation on urination, males a lot more pain “peeing through broken glass”Incubation period: 2-8 days (shortest)Can lead to PIDLead causeTreatmentCeftriaxone or similarPenicillin resistanceJanuary 2013 report that gonorrhea has become resistant to the last remaining antibiotic. First report of cephalosporin-resistant gonorrheaCan get in throat, anus, penis, vaginaNewborns can get itEye drops are put in to prevent blindnessHerpes (HSV-2)SymptomsFemale: one or more sores on labia, or around cervix. External sores will be painful. Internal wont be able to be fletMale: one or more sores on penis. Sores are usually painfulIncubation period 5-11 daysNo cureTreatmentAcyclovir(Zovirex)Was first an ointment that decreased the time you had the soreHepatitis-BSymptoms in bothFlu like symptoms-fever, lethargy, heacdaches, jaundiceIncubation period: 30-180 daysPhthirus PubisCrabs, pubic lice, parasitesSymptoms:Itchy feeling in pubic hair, particularly bad at night. Small dots on base of each pubic hair. Lice are visible- beige/reddish in colorIncubation period: 8-10 daysTreatmentKwell (lotion to be used on entire body)Wash all clothing and bed linersCan get without having sex easilyAIDS TimelineJuly 1981- outbreak of skin cancer linked to “gay pneumonia” epidemic, 30 cases. West coat.April 1982- cases among intravenous drug users are reported. East coast.July 1982- rare disease detected among hemophiliacs. Epidemic finally named- acquired immune deficiency syndrome.December 1982- first AIDS case linked to blood transfusion detectedFebruary 1983- French researchers isolate virus that causes AIDS…their work is largely ignoredAugust 1983- Reagan administration officials say AIDS is the “number one health priority”April 1984- national cancer institute researchers announce they have discovered the virus that causes AIDS. Turns out to be the same as the French virusOctober 1984- san Francisco public health officials close gay bathhousesMarch 1985- blood banks begin testing donations for HIVJuly 1985- AIDS diagnosis of movie star Rock Hudson is disclosed, setting off an avalanche of media attention to the diseaseSeptember 1986- Surgeon general C Everett Koop releases his controversial report on AIDS preventionNothing to do to cure or treatBlunt vocab pamphletAll we have is educationFebruary 1987- Las Vegas pianist and stage performer, Liberace dies of AIDSJanuary 1988- AIDS cases reaches 50,000December 1988- former ABC television news anchor Max Robinson dies of AIDSBlackHint of what was to comeNovember 1991- Magic Johnson announces that he is HIV positiveThrough heterosexual sexFebruary 1992-DefinitionsGRID- Gay relatedAIDS- acquiredHIV- human immunodeficiencyProgressionLong incubation period in most people2 years before death occursT4 helper cell count (originally) (<200/microliter)Viral loadAmount of virus in blood streamOpportunistic infectionsPCP- pneumoniaKaposi’s sarcomaAIDS dementiaJan 1993 addedPulmonary TBRecurrent pneumoniaCervical cancerAdded bc it was covered by health insuranceTestingelisaX2Western Blot- definitive testOral mucosaOraquick rapid antibody testOraquick rapid antibody in home testHave helped a lot from public health perspectivePeople had to come back for the results and often didn’tAntibody- tests show you have developed themTakes a long time to develop antibodies so not always a good indicatorTreatmentAZTNo effect on adults w AIDSOn women who were pregnant, decreases transmission to newbornsProtease inhibotorsMost successfulModes of transportationSexualAnal- more tissue tearingVaginalOralKissingDefinitionsBiological sex- genetic material, chromosomesGender Identity- psychological sense of being a male or femaleSocial sex roles- the adherence to culturally created

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UMD HLTH 377 - Lecture notes

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