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Final Exam Review SheetModule 1:- Learning preferences (a basic sense of what they are)o Spontaneous Physical learning. Enjoys competition, risk, adventure. Like action and freedom to act, enjoys performso Organized Prefer structure and routine, appreciate advanced notice, a good syllabus, and clear requirements. Like opportunities for practice and clear grading criteriao Conceptual Prefer to work independently to solve a problem, pose questions and seek answers. Try to predict what they will encounter.o Interactive Prefer subjects that allow them to work with others, or that have a personalfocus. Much less interest in detail; more interest in the larger meaningModule 2:- The four strategies for achievement—what they are and how to use themo Take Reasonable Risk: the driving or empowering strategy. It energizes or ropels you uinto action by guiding and directing you choices.  Go for Goal- Set challenging but attainable goals Bite-Size Pieces- Break tasks into small, manageable stepso Take Responsibility: for your outcomes in the belief strategy. It deals with the thoughts or beliefs that are in your head. Think Positive- “I have what it takes to do well” Plan- Build a plan, go beyond just thinkingo Search the Envrionment: is the action strategy. This is how you get and use information, figure things out, and think. Just Ask- “What questions does this information answer?” Visualize It- Thinkn in pictureso Use Feedback: is the reaction strategy.  Keep Track- Note the results of your actions- Test yourself (before an exam) Tell Yourself- Use feedback to instruct yourself what to do/not to doModule 3:- To-do checklistso Plan your actionso Plan each of the important activites you must acocmplish, and you can break down these activites into bite-size pieces- Categories and examples of rationalizationso You concinve yourself, “its not my fault”o Ignorance “I didn’t know I was supposed to do that”o Skill Deficiency “I don’t know how to do it”o Apathy “I really don’t want to do this”o Habits “I work better under pressure”o Lack of Memoryo Physical Problems “I couldn’t do it; I was sick”- Real reasons for procrastinationo Lack of self-confidenceo Low frustration tolerance Immediate gratification Passivitey: beliebing you need others to get you goingo Hostility (“Ideal Fairness”) Its not fair Nobody knows how tough my life has been- Analyzing the procrastination cycleo Potentially Difficult Situation Self Beliefs (I cant cope with this) Feelings (anxiety, fear, anger) Behavior (procrastination) (Leads back to situation)Module 4:- Four techniques for building self-confidenceo Regualte Your Emotional Level Reduce the drive to avoid your goal Block the fear producer from your awareness Use relaxation techniques- Focus on self (breathing, counting, visualization)- Think positiveo Seek Affirmation Affirm yourself- Think positive- Tell yourslef Encouragment form others- Use feedback, keep tracko Pick the Right Models Pick models who are similar to you Imitate and expect to achieve the same results as them- Plan, take resonable risk, go for goal, bite size pieceso Just Do It Just do it correctly- Tell yourself, use feedback- Builds confidence Incorrectly breeds self-doubt- Take reasonable risk- Get help, using bite size pieces- Psychological concepts related to self-beliefs (e.g., self-fulfilling prophecy)o Self Fulfilling Prophecy Our thoughts influence our actions What we expect is usually what happens We fulfill our own expectationso Self-Confidence Positive- The belief in oneself- Self-confident people think positivley about their ability to succeeed- In turn, success leads to self confidence Negative- Lack of success leads to learned helplessnesso Loss of seld confidence over timeo Give up, avoid tryingo Apathy and depressionModule 5:- Causal explanations—definition and dimensions of eacho Internal vs External Internal: comes from inside self- Ability- Effort External: comes from outside self- Task difficulty- Luck- Help from otherso Controllable vs. Uncontrollable Controllability- Is the cause under my control?- if the object of your thoughts ins your own behavior (internal) thenyou can control it- if the object of your thoughts is someone else’s behavior (external)that is something you cannot control Changeability- If you can control your thoughts/actions you can change the outcomes- If you cannot control your thoughts/actions you will no change the outcomeso Changeable vs. Unchangeable Changeability- Can the cause be changes or not?o Responsible vs Not Responsible Responsbility- Was the casue (and outcome) my responsibility or not?- Effort vs. ability vs. strategyo Effort Internal, controllable and changeable Only one for which you are responsible People expect you to take more responsibility for effor than ability Increasing Effort:- Taking responsibility for outcomes- Developing new strategies- Working smarter- Relation of causal explanations to taking responsibilityo What we believe caused a result/outcomeModule 6 and 7:- Recap, Reflection, and Reasoning Questions—what are they and how to use themo Recap Summarize entire sections Found in headings/subheadings May compare and contrast singular ideas Draw connections among ideaso Reflection: “refelct” what a paragraph or 2 of text answers Definition/description Cause-effect Compare ideas Explanation Sequences Often, several reflection questions together answer a recap questiono Reasoning Questions:based on inference, interpretations, or speculation on the part of the reader What if? How can? Why? The answers are not found directly in the textModule 8:- When to use each type of chart/diagramo Skeleton Key Diagrams Key words, phrases, images used to organize information for essay questions Types:- For/against- Analysis- Time-Line- Cause/ Effect Styles:- Recap questions along topo First row= factors/topicso Columns= information related to factors/topicso Compare/Contrast Web Chart Divide notes/info into important topics Select recap questions that will summarize this information Find several items to compare- List them across the top Find several characteristics on which to compare items:- list questions down the left column, using reflection questionsModule 9:-

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OSU EDUPL 1259 - Final Exam Review Sheet

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