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HPV continued:-similar to flu-2 vaccines: gardisil and cervarix-controversy over vaccinating children-infects everyone, sometimes causes cervix infection-many mixed opinions towards hpv and people’s perspetives on it1. 99% hpv does NOT lead to cancer2. women with regular pap tests get little benefit regarding surviving cancer3. not sure how long hpv vaccination lasts, 6/7 years right now is the known time4. side effects are rare and minor, but sometimes serious-CDC shows that hpv  cancer in many places like mouth, throat, etc.-boys AND girls should be vaccinated (gov. view) and many states have own laws to educate/fund/require the vaccinationsAnti-angiogenesis drugs:-cancer grows through its blood supply so these drugs try to cut off that blood supply to stop the tumor from continually growingLongevity: expected lifespanspecies specific genetically controlled (long-live mutants)1840: life span is UNDER 50 years, today USA baby is 78 years-why do humans/plants age? 1. Consequence of positive activities like reproduction that have negative long term effects on the body 2. No reason to use energy to repair body functions when we are longer competitive with reproductioncommitting energy to certain repair mechanisms may not be biologically worthwhile-can we reduce aging?Many products and such say we can, but starving yourself may extend life (+) and it may cause continual stress (-) leading to a higher level of cell repair functionsWhy menopause? Stops women from being able to have babies-Does it increase the chance of a women’s genes being present in future generations?-Something that has evolved so it MUST benefit having babies-Having babies is dangerous because if the baby is born then mom dies, NOBODY can take care of the kidThat helps mom’s genes indirectly pass on1. egg cells (dna) age in ovary and so may accumulate deleterious mutations where sperm are continuously new so it prevents you from wasting young sperm on old eggs2. babies are dangerous so many mothers die from birth. If gramma is alive and not threatened with pregnancy she can take over parenting  more kids survive3. grandma’s help with feeding  mom can stop breastfeeding sooner and get pregnant again sooner4. with no risk of pregnancy women live longer and gain experience of infrequent disasters so that knowledge helps people survive (I know what to do when we have a fire/ flood! Need that societal memory so more people survive and pass those genes on)Dementia: loss of cognitive functions, thinking, memory, behaviorAlzheimer’s disease: most common cause of dementia with older peopleAbnormal clumps (amyloid plaques) and tangles bundles of fibers (neurofibrillary tangles) in brain tissue cause thisThe connections between nerve cells are lost and so the brain shrinksA misfolding of excreted proteins cause problems inside the brain (like prions) (RUINS OUTSIDE OF CELL)Tangles are twisted fibers of proteins that accumulate inside cells and destroy internal structure (RUINS INSIDE)People don’t know what controls it and the rules, just that the tangles and clumps are end result-in the next 10-15 years # of people with dementia will continue to increase and it will become more expensive to pay for their care-impacts millions (1/8 over 65 has it)-major challenge that scientists want to try and understand, know the 2 proteins but not WHY it happens)How should we define human death?-when/can organs be removed for transplantation?-when all brain activity stopped, all higher function brain activity stopped, heart beat stopped (how long?)-case: court blocked hospital from taking kid off life support after being brain dead 3 days-case: doctors in Hungary delivery baby boy, his mom is brain dead for 3 months during pregnancy, donate organs. She was kept alive LONG ENOUGH to save kid through c-section.-case: woman pregnant and family wants life support turned off because those were her wishes and hospital didn’t want to because it would terminate the fetus and violate a TX law. FINAL DECISION : IN FAVOR OF FAMILY.Class Survey Results: longevity of humans does exist and should be around 90-100 or 120-129 years-baby expectancy today: 78 years-dispatch shows Ohio is one of DEADLIEST states for babies (ranked 48th because over 1000 die before 1 yr old)deals with mother care most of the timevery high in franklin county and higher among blacks than whiteshighest cause of deaths: low birth weight / disordersReproduction:-randomness of partner: not actually randompeople who look most similar to you regarding features, culture, background, goals, etcpheromones: released chemicals that trigger behavioral responses in other members of the same species. In many species these attract ppl of the opposite sexhuman pheromones? Evidence showing with dorms menstrual periods converge and occur at the same timeexperiment: armpit secretions from men were swabbed 3 times a week on the upper lip of women with menstrual cycles and in THREE months cycles all approached the same # of daysMen’s Reproductive Systems:bladder in the front, tubes go behind the bladdersperm collected in epididymis (survives better at lower body temperatures which is why testes are outside of the body)circumcision: removes foreskin that covers glans penis (often times a religious things other times it’s a societal action)75% boys in us are circumcisedmedical benefits of doing thisnot all states fund circumcision through medicaidSperm:-lobule: compartment found inside testis, where sperm develops from outside to inside (outside to center part of tubes and are released, then move through tubules to epididymis-Epididymis: where most sperm is stored-sperm head = 23 chromosomesacrosome: has egg surface digesting enzymes-head + middle piece: mitochondria + flagella (tail to swim)-spermatogenesis: 1 spermatocyte - 4 spermoogenesis: 1 oocyte  1 egg and 3 non polar bodies-vasectomy: cut off tubes to prevent from going to penisErections:-sexual arousement arteries expand  blood enters erectile tissue  bloods compress so decrease flow and it’s an erection-viagra: maintains erection because blocks enzyme that breaks stuff down so it can’t INITIATE but can MAINTAIN (work on downside)Ejaculation:-sperm leave testis that were collected in epididymis-fluids add alkali, increasing ph in vagina and providing nutrient energy?-sperm and seminal fluid enter and muscles close bladder exit, preventing urine flow-ejaculation: 1 million sperm / ml-after:

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OSU BIOLOGY 1102 - Lecture notes

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