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Organic CompoundsIntermolecular Forces:Hydrogen bonds: When a hydrogen atom is covalently bonded toa highly electronegative atom like nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine (N,O,F), it can exhibit an additional polar attraction. This attractionis called a hydrogen bond. Electronegativity: The ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself in a chemicalbond.The Living Cell:Biochemistry: Is the chemistry of liv-ing things and life process.The basic structural unit of all living or-ganisms is the cell. Plant Cell Animal Cell All cells are enclosed in a cell membrane, which regulates the passage of nutrients andwastes. In addition to a cell membrane, plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall composed of cellulose. Nucleus: The nucleus contains the genetic material that controls heredity. Ribosomes: The structure where protein synthesis occurs. Mitochrondria: The cell structure where energy production occurs. Chloroplasts: Found only in plant cells. In the chloroplasts, photosynthesis occurs.Energy in Biological Systems:Green plants contain chloroplasts, which are capable of taking the radiant energy of the sun and storing it as chemical energy in glucose molecules. 6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Plant cells can also convert carbohydrate molecules to fat molecules, and some are even capable of converting them to proteins. Animals cannot produce their own energy. They must obtain such energy by eating plants or other animals that eat plants.Animals obtain energy from 3 major types of substances: 1.Carbohydrates 2.Fats 3.Proteins Energy in Biological Systems Classes of Food Foods are chemicals. For proper nutrition, our diet should include balanced proportions of carbohy-drates, fats and proteins, along with water, vitamins, minerals and fiber. Carbohydrates: are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or compounds that can be hy-drolyzed (split by water) to form such compounds.  includes sugars, starches and cellulose  usually expressed by the formula Cx(H2O)y, i.e., glu-cose C6H12O6 which is C6(H2O)6 Sugars are sweet-tasting carbohydates Monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharidesMonosaccharides: Carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler compounds.Disaccharides consist of molecules that can be hydrolyzed into two monosaccharide units. Hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose Hydrolyzed into glucose and galactosePolysaccharides are composed of large molecules that can be hydrolyzed into many monosaccharide units. Examples include starch, cellulose, and glycogen. Carbohydrates in the Diet:The monosaccharides glucose (dextrose) and fructose, and the disaccharide sucrose are the most common dietary sugars.Digestion and Metabolism of Carbohydrates Glucose and fructose are absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Sucrose is hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose. Sucrose + H2O → Glucose + Fructose Lactose, found in milk, is hydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. Lactose + H2O → Glucose + Galactose Some people lack the enzyme necessary to hydrolyze lactose. This is known as lactose intolerance. Galactose is converted to glucose during metabolism. Some babies lack the enzyme (galactosemia) necessary for this conversion and require a synthetic formula for propernutrition. Complex Carbohydrates Starch and cellulose starch are polymers of glucose connected by alpha linkages; most animals and humans possess the enzymes necessary to hydrolyze starch to glu-cose that can then serve as a source of energy. Carbohydrates such as starch pro-duce 4 kcal of energy per gram. Cellulose is a polymer of glucose connected by beta linkages; most animals and hu-mans lack the enzymes necessary to hydrolyze cellulose, and it serve as a source of roughage or dietary fiber.Glycogen is the means by which animals store glucose. It is a highly branched polymerof alpha glucose and is sometimes known as animal starch. Excess glycogen is stored as fat. Some bacteria found in the gut of termites and digestive tract of grazing animals can hy-drolyze cellulose to glucose and these animals can use cellulose as a source of


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AU CHEM 100 - Organic Compounds

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