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PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM TWO CHAPTER 7 MEMORY Memory retention of information over time Memory illusion false but subjectively compelling memory Iconic memory visual sensory memory Three Stages of Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval Sensory memory brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short term memory Recall generating previously remembered information type of retrieval where you need to produce information Example write down all the words you remember Recognition selecting previously remembered information from an array of options type of retrieval where you need to identify information Example for each word presented indicate whether you saw it before on a study list Three Systems of Memory sensory iconic and echoic STM LTM Echoic memory auditory sensory memory Iconic memory visual sensory memory Short term memory memory system that retains information for limited durations retains information for about 15 seconds Long term memory relatively enduring from minutes to years retention of information stored regarding our facts experiences and skills semi permanent retention of information permastore some memories are permanent Permastore type of long term memory that appears to be permanent Serial Position Curve Serial Forgetting Curve Serial position curve graph predicting both primary and recency effects on people s ability to recall items on a list Recency effect tendency to remember words at the end of the list especially well compared with words from the middle of the list because they are immediately available in the short term memory store Primacy effect tendency to remember words from the beginning of the list especially well compared with words from the middle of the list because they can be more easily rehearsed Semantic memory our knowledge of facts about the world Episodic memory recollection of events in our lives Memory Loss Decay fading of information from memory over time Interference loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information competing information our memories get in the way of each other causes memory loss o Proactive interference new information impaired by old information interference with acquisition acquirement of new information due to previous learning of information o Retroactive interference old information impaired by new information interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information Magic number the span of short term memory according to George Miller seven plus or minus two pieces of information Chunking organizing information into meaningful groupings allowing us to extend the span of short term memory Rehearsal repeating information to extend the duration of retention in short term memory Maintenance rehearsal repeating stimuli in the original form to retain them in short term memory Elaborative rehearsal linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short term memory Levels of processing depth of transforming information which influences how easily we remember it Amnesia specific Memory Loss Retrograde amnesia loss of memories from our past Anterograde amnesia inability to form new memories from our experiences Example Clive Wearing Memento Explicit vs Implicit Memory Explicit memory memories we recall intentionally and are consciously aware of Implicit memory memories we cannot intentionally recall or consciously explain Example procedural memory Procedural memory memory for how to do things including motor skills and habits like knowing how to ride a bike Priming our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we ve encountered similar stimuli Encoding process of getting information into our memory banks Mnemonic a learning aid strategy or device that enhances recall Storage process of keeping information in memory Schema organized knowledge structure or mental model that we ve stored in memory Retrieval reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores Retrieval cue hint that makes it easier for us to recall information Relearning reacquiring knowledge that we d previously learned but largely forgotten over time Distributing versus massed practice studying information in small increments over time distributed versus in large increments over a brief amount of time massed Context vs State Dependent Memory Context Dependent Memory better retrieval of memories when in the same environmental context as during encoding when memories were formed Example same seat in the classroom Context dependent learning superior retrieval of memories when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context State Dependent Memory better retrieval of memories when in the same psychological state of mind as during encoding Example same mood same drugs etc State dependent learning superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding Tip Of The Tongue TOT phenomenon experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it feeling like you know something but cannot access produce the actual word itself Encoding specificity phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it Long term potentiation LTP gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation Source monitoring confusion lack of clarity about the origin of a memory confusion about where a memory originated Example not remembering who said a particular joke Cryptomnesia failure to realize that our ideas originated with someone else when we mistakenly forget that one of our ideas originated with someone else Flashbulb memory emotional memory that is very vivid and detailed so it seems perfectly accurate though it s usually not emotional memory that is extraordinarily vivid and detailed Suggestive memory technique procedure that encourages patients to recall memories that may or may not have taken place Misinformation effect creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information about an event after it takes place CHAPTER 6 LEARNING Sensitization vs Habituation Learning change in an organism s behavior or thought as a result of experience Sensitization responding more to repeated stimuli especially those that are annoying dangerous Habituation process of responding less strongly

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