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1) People exists in multiple contexts that shape behavior and life outcomes2) Defining Sociologya) Basic definition: Systematic study of human societyi) Unit of analysis: individuals, groups, institutions, relationships, etc.b) Contribution: general patterns that emergei) How they are livedc) Focus: intro to the disciplinei) Focusing on faith of US teensd) Sociology in the newsi) An oddity for a teenager to be passionate about their Christian faith (CNN)1) Sociological Foundations2) Sociological Perspectivea) Systematic study, patterns of behaviorb) Group behavior as primary; groups  individualsc) Themes:i) Seeing General in the particular(1) Patterns in behavior of particular peopleii) Seeing strange in the familiar(1) Going to college; 7/100…80/20iii) Benefits:(1) Assessing opportunities, constraints(2) Active participants in society(a) More informed citizensd) *Exploring the social circumstances of the society around us1) Global Perspectivea) *Broadening the scope of Social Explorationsb) Global Village: 1,000 snapshot (p.10)i) Study of larger world, our place in itii) An unequal place(1) Income, population, education, healthiii) From 7 billion to 1,000(1) 603 Asians(2) 149 Africans, 107 Europeans, 85 Latinos(3) 75% of income earned by 200 residents(4) 67 college degreesiv) The sociological perspective reminds us that our achievements also result from our nations privileged position in the worldwide social systemc) Value of a global perspectivei) Study of the larger world, our place in it(1) Where we live shapes how we live(2) Societies increasingly interconnected(3) Social problem severity(4) Learning more about ourselves(a) Appreciating where we are2) Origins: explaining social changea) Industrial economyi) Harnessing powerii) Distance from homeb) Growth of citiesi) New form of concentrationii) Immigration for opportunityiii) Social challenges; ex. Jewish “ghetto”c) Political, societal awarenessi) From God’s will to “personal liberty”ii) U.S., French Revolutionsiii) Comte (1838), “sociology,” positivism3) Basic Theoretical Approachesa) Structural-Functional Approachi) Society is viewed as an organism in which each part serves a functionii) Macro-level, Emile Durkheim, August Comteiii) Assumptions(1) Society is a system of interdependent subsystems(2) Each part works to keep society operating in an orderly way(3) Members generally agree about what is morally right and wrongiv) Core questions(1) How is society held together?(2) What are the major parts of society?(3) How are these parts linked?(4) What does each part do to help society work?v) Critique(1) Power, inequalities(2) Rationale for status quo(3) Too simplistic, almost completely ignores inequalities that may lead to conflict/tensionb) Social-Conflict Approachi) Made up of different groups in constant competition with each otherii) Groups must struggle to maximize their benefitsiii) Macro-level, Karl Marx, W.E.B. DuBoisiv) Assumptions(1) Society is a system of social inequalities based on class, gender, and race(2) Society operates to benefits some categories of people and harm others(3) Social inequalities cause conflict that leads to social changev) Core questions(1) How does society divide a population?(2) How do advantaged people protect their privileges?(3) How do disadvantaged people challenge the system seeking change?vi) Critique(1) Cannot explain societal unity(2) Middle class?c) Symbolic-Interaction Approachi) Evolves from interactions with the social environment and other individualsii) Micro-level, Max Weber, Erving Goffmaniii) Assumptions(1) Society is an ongoing process(2) People interact in countless settings using symbolic communications(3) The reality people experience is variable and changingiv) Core questions(1) How do people experience society?(2) How do people shape the reality they experience?(3) How do behavior and meaning change from person to person and from one situation to another?v) Critique(1) Where is structure in all the micro-interactions?(2) Too small-scale(a) Doesn’t look at the influence of the large-scale processes4) From Theory to Culture: The legacy of Prof. W.E.B DuBoisa) U.S Sociology Pioneeri) Harvard PhD (1895)ii) Differences within cultureiii) Race and “American”iv) Differences within culturev) Challenged perceptions of inferiority(1) Perceptions as cultural element(2) Need for “double consciousness”vi) Research to Org. Action  cultural changeb) Useful distinctionsi) Culture- a society’s system of shared, learned values and norms which are society’s design for livingii) Nation- political entity; bordersiii) Society- people interacting in a territory, sharing culturec) The Elements of Culturei) Symbols(1) Anything that carries particular meaning to people who share that cultureii) Languages(1) System of symbols; communication, continuity(2) Set of verbal and written symbols which allow people to communicate with each otheriii) Values and beliefs(1) Standards of assessment(2) Statements held as truthiv) Norms(1) Established societal rules of that guide behavior; expectationsv) Ideal and real culture(1) Most values vs. lived experienced) * Culture shocki) Disorientation from unfamiliar expectationse) Valuesi) Abstract ideas about what is right or wrong or desirable or undesirable in a particular culturef) Cultural Diversityi) Multiculturalism(1) Perspective which recognizes and promotes equality for all culturesii) Subculture(1) A group of people within a culture which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belongg) Culture change over timei) Invention(1) The creation of new cultural elements(a) Ex. Cellphoneii) Discovery(1) Understanding something that already exists more fully(a) Ex. Women holding political officeiii) Diffusion(1) The spread of cultural traits from one society to another1. What is Socialization? (P.79)a. “This chapter stresses one key theme: Society shapes how we think, feel, and act.”2. Definition- Lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culturea. DISTINCTION 1- Personality: a person’s fairly consistent patterns (acting, thinking, feeling)b. DISTINCTION 2- Nature and nurture: We are (much) more than our biologyc. “Nurture matures more in shaping human behavior” (p.63)3. Socialization Theories: The Social Selfa. G.H. Mead (1863-1931)i. Main idea: social behaviorism; a social selfii. Premise-1. Self not there at birthiii. How-1. Through social


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OSU SOCIOL 1101 - Notes

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