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Final Exam Study Guide: All Lecture NotesThese are my notes from every lecture of this year. I have not missed a single lecture theentire course. Some dates notes were not taken due to a movie day or test day. All of the information in these notes comes from Professor McDow’s lectures, I own none of the information. The images come from google images and belong to their respective sources. Again, this guide in no way shape or form guarantees any grade, it is simply a study tool. These notes are the information presented in Professor McDow’s lecture over the course of the year and written by me, these notes are not created by Professor McDow. All information belongs totheir proper and original sources, I own none of the information presented in this study guide. 1/14/2014 Lecture NotesHistory 1682World Map- Most of it is water- Maps typically aren’t to scale (the land masses)- Many different perspective of the world map- A plethora of types of mapso As well as a large quantity of inferences that can be made from each one A world of dating- Centurieso 16th century=1500sCountries- Even the idea nation state has a historyo Nationalism - China, Italy, Germany Before European Hegemony: Hegemony: Strong influence over others1/16/14History 1682Lecture NotesReview:What is hegemony?- Strong influence or dominanceKey Terms Chapter 11 (404-439):- Black Death- Ottoman Empire- Constantinople/Istanbul- Janissaries + devshirme- Safavid Empire- Shiism- Shah- Mughal Empire- Sikhism- Moors- Reconquest- Inquisition- Humanism- Renaissance- Zheng He- Ming Dynasty (368)What did the world look like in the 13 th Century? - New kind of world system- Roman’s & Chinese are in direct contacto Communication starts to decline- Islam begins to unite multiple peoples- Urban centers and costal trading towns begin to become connectedEconomic integration and cultural flourishing were tied into each other- The beginnings of class separation - A time when goods moved further than people- 8 circuits of 13 century world system Three Major Subsystems/Regions- Northwestern Europe (Christendom)- Middle Eastern (Dar al-Islam) - Far Eastern (India and China) Spices were extremely important because they were so light to carry, but worth a lot of money.If the most important trading centers were in Asia, what was Europe’s role in the world system?- Europe was peripheral, role of Venice & Genoa growing - Crusadeso Siege of Damascus (1149) Armies of Baldwin III, Louis VII, and Conrad III  Part of the second crusade o Created interest and demand for Asian/other outside cultural goods- Genoa & Venice of Italyo Huge important trading citieso Moved trade along the Mediterranean o Served as Europe’s “gateway” to the rest of the world Malacca/ Melaka Vital Node“Whoever is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice”“If Cambay were cut off from trading with Malacca, it couldn’t live”- Gathering point while waiting for the monsoon winds to change directions, huge cultural build upWhat major change to the global system took place in the 14 th century? The Contraction of the World System (1350-1450)- Black Death (1320-1360)o Fleaso Seems to have started in Burma (Asia)o Spread all the way to Europeo Didn’t have the same impact everywhere it went  Killed everywhere, but amounts varied depending on the places- Social and Political Disturbanceso Mongol collapse Collapsed due to fleas The fleas had the plague o Rise of the Ming dynasty, 1368o Rise of the OttomansWhat were some impacts on the contraction of the world system?- Mongol collapseo 14th century- Ming Dynastyo Initial engagement with outside trade Zheng He (admiral)o Later, withdrawal- Ottoman (1400)Rise in Dominance of the Ottomans- Origins in Anatolia- Becomes Muslim empire- Dominant political, military, and economic roleHistory 1682Lecture Notes1/23/14European TradingVenice and Genoa were huge trading cities in Italy. - Italy has big connections to the rest of the worldCristoforo Colombo (1451-1506) (Christopher Columbus)- From Genoa - Faulty logic?- Contingency and historical chance- Did he realize what he had done?- Unanticipated consequences- Spain funds Columbus o His numbers were way off Misread Arabic texts Marco Polo calculations were incorrect - Sailed in 1492 - 10% commission on any spices, precious metals, etc. that he found- Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria were his ships His actions were huge, encouraged the European Exploration (1420-1580)Did Columbus discover the Americas?- Lots of debateo Vikingso Natives need to be discovered?- He initiated the first wave of cross-cultural contact on a global scale o What is more accurate to sayWhy didn’t Genoa and Venice take the lead in exploring the Atlantic?- Fighting for supremacy against the Ottoman Empire (a side note)- Inertia (reason #1)o Why move on when trade is already going great!!- Technology (reason #2)o Mediterranean ships couldn’t handle the Atlantic oceanWhy did the initiative come from the Iberian Peninsula for exploring the Atlantic?- Economics and geographyo They geographically are located into the Atlantic ocean- Technologyo Compasses, and especially ships that could withstand the Atlantic ocean- Ideology (often gets left out)o Strongly anti-Muslim history in Spain & Portugal  Catholic militant ideology  Kicked out Muslims and Jews- Reconquista- Reconquering the territory of the Jews and Muslims (Granada) o Granada Huge area in Southern Spain (Iberian peninsula) that was Muslim Eurocentric framework= “Old World” (Europe)“discovers” and “isolated” “New World” (Americas)“Old World” #1 - Africa Eurasia ---- “New World”- Columbian Exchange - Africa- Europe- Asia“Old World” #2- The Americas What was the Columbian Exchange?Exchange of people, idea, goods, and more across the Atlantic Ocean- Exchange= both ways- Knowledge, plants, animals, and diseaseNew world gave- Gold- Silver- Corn, potatoes, beans vanilla, chocolate, tobacco, and cottonOld World gave- Wheat- Sugar- Rice - Coffee- Horses, cows, pigs- Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, and moreAfrica gave- SlavesAmerindian Corn (Maize) - Important stable around 1600White potatoes- Think it came from PeruSweet PotatoesPotatoes are easily to cultivate, huge in food exchange Beans- Protein- Large variety- “Poor man’s meat”Manioc (Cassava)- Root crop from South America- Easily to cultivate


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OSU HISTORY 1682 - Final Exam Study Guide

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