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Psych 1101 Section 3 Notes- There are many situations where you can look at others for influence. (Don’t do if you wanna be unique nomsaiyan?)What is Social Psychology?- Social Psychology: the study of the causes and consequences of sociality- Study of how people influence other’s thoughts feelings, and behaviorso Other people are a big part of why people behave the way they do. Social BehaviorWe are Ultra-Social- As hominids in Africa, we evolved in relatively small, tight social groups, and we still do, even now!- Approximate size of most human social groups = 150- Only 4 species on Earth that form societies in which large numbers of individuals divide labor and cooperate for mutual benefito Humans are only one whose society consist of genetically unrelated individualso Importance of being social? Survival!Survival- Resources (food, water, and shelter) are essential for survival- Resources are always scarce- Humans solve this problem by hurting each other and helping each othero Aggression- behavior whose purpose is to harm another (verbal or physical)o Frustration – Agression Hypothesis : A principle stating that animals (including humans) aggress when their goals are thwartedo Alternatively, aggression may be caused by negative affectThe Biology of AggressionGender is the Single Best predictor of aggression habitsMeno More likely to experience aggressiono Socialized to me more aggressiveo Presence of testosteroneo Focus on maintaining statuso Aggress in ways that cause physical injury- Womeno More likely to be premeditated and focus in their aggressiono Socialized to be less aggressiveo Minimal levels of testosteroneo Focus on attaining or protecting resourceso Aggress in ways that causes social harmCulture and Aggression- Over time humans have “been getting kinder and gentler” (Pinker, 2007)- Levels of aggression vary with geographyo Among different countries and within a single countryCooperation- Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit.- Able to accomplish much more when working together- Risk others not cooperating and/or cheatingo Prevent learning by how to spot a cheaterThe Prisoner’s Dilemma / Game Theory Who can we trust?- Group: a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others- When grouping, make sure to considero Prejudiceo Discriminationo DeindividuationPrejudice and DiscriminationPrejudice – a positive or negative evaluation of a person based on their group membership- Conclusions drawn before evaluating the evidenceDiscrimination- a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membershipHow can we combat prejudice and discrimination?- By working toward a shared goal- ExamplesJigsaw classroomso Children make independent contributions to a shared projectRobber’s Caveo Groups were given a series of activities that required them to cooperate to achieve an overarching goal.Deindivuation- When immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values- Diffusion of responsibility: tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way- The Sad Case of Kitty Genovese – The ultimate case of diffusion of responsibility. (Bystander Effect)Belonging- It’s important to nurture our social relationships!o We have an inherent “need to belong”- Exclusion is associated with poorer physical and emotional stateAltruism- Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself- Is it altruistic if it’s our relative we are helping?o Kin Selection- process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives- What if we expect something in return?o Reciprocal altruism – behavior that benefits another with the expectation that these benefits will be returned in the future.Selectivity- Women are more selective than men in finding a sexual partnero Sex comes at a greater cost for women.- Cultural factors can lead to higher reputational costs for women than meno Promiscuous women seen as “sluts” and men as “playboys”- Men become more selective when seeking a long-term mate.Social Influence- The ability to control another person’s behavior- Three basic motivations make us susceptible to influenceo Hedonic Motive WE all prefer pleasure over pain Social influence can be exerted by providing rewards and punishmentso Approval Motive We depend on others for safety, sustenance, and solidarity and thus are motivated to have others like, accept, and approve of us.ooo Accuracy Motive Normative influence Conformity ObedienceWhat’s the norm?o Norm: a customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a cultureo Normative influence: another person’s behavior provides us with information about what is appropriateo Norm of reciprocity: the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them; “returning the favor”Door-in-the-Face techniqueo A strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavioro Making a larger request before making the small request we’re hoping to have granted.Conformityo The tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it.o Altering your behavior as a result of group pressure.o Once a norm is defined, we feel obliged to honor it. The ASCH Conformity Studyo Participants were told it was a study on visual perceptiono 1 participant, 4 confederateso Asked to pick the matching fireo Confederates all gave same wrong answero We say now that we wouldn’t agree with the group, BUT:o 75% went along with the group’s obviously incorrect answerObedienceo The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to doo Is actually a good thing, in small doses!o Allows society to run smoothly; keeps social ordero “Just taking orders” used to excuse inhumane behavior.Oedience vs ConformityObedienceo Result of normative influenceo Authority figures are exerting influenceo Percieved difference in statuso Fear of consequences from authorityConformityResult of normative influenceStanley Milgram’s obedience studyo Study examining obedience to authorityo Yale University, 1960so Subjects told to shock “learner” (a confederate) for wrong answers, increasing of shockso How far will subjects go with shocksThe accuracy Motiveo Attitude: An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or evento Tell us What we should doo Belief: an


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OSU PSYCH 1100 - Lecture notes

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