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Understanding Sociology 01 10 2013 Sociology Systematic study of social behavior and human groups Social structure social norms constrains individual choice Macrosociology concentrates on large social phenomena Microsociology stresses the study of small groups Social Vs Natural Science Natural scientists focus on elements and relationships that exists in our physical environment Social scientists focus on attitudes experiences relationships Common sense is understandings based upon personal experience related to people not systematic Central Sociological Questions What are people doing with each other here and why What are people s relationships to one another What attitudes ideas and ideologies guide people How are organizations and institutions shaped How is life patterned Understanding Sociology 01 10 2013 JSTOR EBSCO Core Sociological Perspectives Symbolic Interactionism Micro level o Humans act according to meanings they assign to objects Stimulus Interpretation Response People interpret or assign meanings to the stimulus before they act o Social action involves adjustments and readjustments o Meanings are socially constructed o Different groups often assign different meanings o Meanings subject to change Functionalism Macro level Durkheim Davis Moore o Societies are problem solving entities Functionalists look at practices and institutions as answers to problems functions that need to be addressed X Outcome problems functions o Societies can develop different methods for meeting This is called the Principle of institutional alternatives o Institutions are interconnected Practices or institutions that arise in response to one problem have repercussions for the practices and institutions devised to address other problems Manifest functions explicit objectives Latent functions implicit objectives or unintended outcomes of manifest functions Positive functions contribute to stability of society Dysfunctions negative consequences or functions that impeded proper functioning of society o Social Integration is key properly them So people know how to behave and make society work o Social strain cultural values goals without means of achieving Social strains deviance or conflict Social strain is the impetus for social movement Conflict Perspective Macro level Marx Weber o Groups have antagonistic interests o Groups struggle to meet there interests o Struggles development of various institutions o Practices and institutions are structures of domination that promote the interests of the superordinate relatively dominant powerful often small group while subverting the interests of the subordinate group relatively powerless usually larger interests o Groups use ideologies to promote protect and establish their Ideologies are most successful when they can be constructed to seemingly apply to all people or groups in a society universal o Social movements mobilize to challenge existing ideologies and establish their interests Spirit Discussion 01 10 2013 Trouble Individual Loss of a job Issue Societal rise in Unemployment Sociological Research 01 10 2013 Sociological Imagination The capacity to see beyond the problems in our lives and realize we are in a period of time that affects our lives that we have no control over You have to feel the uneasiness Presentation of self People want to be looked at favorably by others Maintain a working consensus Scientific Research Method Systematic organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching an issue or problem 1 Define the problem state what you are intending to investigate What question are you trying to address 2 Review the literature reading of relevant studies to understand what others have concluded about the topic you are studying Summarize this literature and explain how it is important to your study o Refine your research o Clarify data collection methods 3 Formulate the hypothesis A hypothesis is a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors variables What do you expect to fine o Independent variable influences or causes change in the dependent variable cause or x o Dependent variable is influenced by the independent variable It is the variable you are aiming to understand effect or y 4 Choose the research design a research design is a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically o Survey Questionnaires that generally provide information on how people think and act as well as demographic information Data can be drawn from a lot more people It s cheaper quicker Neutral answer people may be more inclined to lie or low response rate difficult to get a representative sample o Observation Collecting information through direct participation in or closely watching a group or community Can see people in their natural habitat may remove some bias because they won t alter their behavior People can change there behavior if you are too obtrusive and the data won t be genuine o Interviews In depth exploration of people s views and reasons for behavior Personal details can question behavior 5 Collect and analyze the data follow the research design to determine if your hypothesis is supported o Qualitative Observations and in depth interviews Provides o Quantitative Closed ended interviews and questionnaires Numerical data Provides breadth Generally representative depth and detail of populations o Primary data original data o Secondary data data that was previously collected 6 Develop the conclusion what did you find What do you think your findings mean sociologically Reading 10 Extreme Isolation 01 10 2013 Trying to analyze the social implications of the nature versus nurture study was natural Same age Found around the same time Bounced around from foster agency to foster agency Mother was very dumb Anna Isabelle Raised by deaf mute mom in a dark room But still communicated through gestures Comparisons Isabelle more rigorous program Isabelle went to a school where Anna went to a school with mentally retarded children Learning the student role Comparing a kindergarten class to military training Observed the kindergarten class for a little over a year School is here to create expression and live and interact with a small community manifest function Latent function learning to act like a student teaching the child The good student follows the rules and identify with those rules The adequate student follow the rules but don t identify with the The bad student refuses to

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OSU SOCIOL 1101H - Understanding Sociology

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