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Main PointsFranze-Ferdinand, SarajevoWilson declares neutralityLusitania, May 1915American InterventionRed Scare, Immigration RestrictionsProsperityWWI (1914 – 1918)Began with Serbian terrorist group (Black Hand) killed the heir to the Austrian-Hungary Empire Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand in 1914Austria-Hungary declares war on SerbiaAllied (Entente) Powers: Britain, France, RussiaVs.Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy*Progression Era in American History: the relationship between government and the American people was changing. People looked towards the government to regulate the on-going changes brought to American society by the onset of the Industrial Revolution and Americas rise to power on a national level.Franze-Ferdinand, SerajevoWorld War one breaks out in 1914, w/ the assassination of the Austrian-Hungarian emperor, Franze-Ferdinand.Assassinated by a Serbian nationalistImpose martials law, massive crackdown in the empire to prevent a revolutionary outbreakRussia comes the aide of these rebelGerman sides with the Austrian-Hungary empireFrance, England, RussiaWilson declares NeutralityAugust 1914, President Wilson declares that the U.S. will remain neutral in the battle and will not take a side, which allows them to manufacture and sell arms/equipment to BOTH sides.Protecting Americas access to foreign marketsWilson was also attempting to keep domestic1/3 Americans in the census of 1910 was either first/second generation Americans and therefor had relations with some of the European powers involved in WWIFavoring the allied powersAmerican Profiting and German TechnologyThe U.S. has to extend credit to the nations in which it was selling toGermans 26 MillionEnglish 2 BillionThe U.S. is clearly favoring the British in this warGermans must rely on new/smart technologySubmarines – U-boatsFragile, could not stay underwater for very longAllowed them to sink British shipsLusitania, May 7,1915 (British Ship)Germans warned Americans to stay away from British, declaring British waters war zone.Nearing the Irish coast, on May 7, a single torpedo struck the ship sinking it  chain reaction (Transporting arms to the English)1500 passengers drowned, 197 AmericansThe U.S. responds by threatening the Germans, saying that they have to suspend all submarine warfare or the U.S. would declare a declaration of war  they do so not wanting the U.S. to enter the war.American Intervention in WWIZimmermann’s Telegram: Germany would assist Mexico in conquering U.S. territory if they fought a border war with the U.S.In 1917, WWI reaches a deadlock and Germans decide to reinstate submarines warfare  5 Americans ships sunk in March 1917Wilson ask Congress for a declaration of war (April 6, 1917)Wilson says that U.S. was entering this war in order to make the world safe for democracy. (Fourteen Points Speech)Fighting for world peace (free-trade, disarmament, self-determination, etc.)Over 2 million Americans served in WWI, for a little over a yearIn entering WWI, the U.S. does tip the balance and the stalemate is broken.November 1918, Germans surrender and sign for peace (Paris Peace Conference)  Versailles Peace TreatyGermany forced to pay reparations and disarmLeague of NationsA Wilson-supported collective security organization who’s member nations agreed to mediate future international disputes to prevent war and advance global conditions.In 1918, Republicans won control of Congress; Rejected joining the league of NationsThought that America would loose control in involving itself in international meddling; also doubted that world peace could be establishedIsolationist and returning to the normWilson’s Versailles Treaty not ratified by congress; separate treaties with German, Austria, and Hungary are ratified in 1921American Unrest (Striking & Terrorism)Americans U.S. involvement in WWIAmerican people begin to question whether involvement in WWI was worth it.Over 50,000 Americans died in combat, another 50,000+ pass from diseaseWhen the war ends and soldiers return, there is much American unrestStrikingThousand American workers go on strike looking for more money, and less hoursPeople wanted more money to provide for their familiesU.S. steel, police Boston, municipal workers, minersTerrorist ATTACKSIn addition to major strife, terrorist strikes in American (package bombs to American.Mayor of SeattleAttorney general U.S.—Mitchell Palmer (chief law enforcement official of the U.S.)Sets up special unit, headed by J Edward Hoover (head of the FBI);roots of the FBIInvestigate bombings (1919-1920)He concludes that the source of this unrest is from communist agents from abroad. Attempting to destabilize the U.S. during the Russian revolution (caused Russia to withdraw from WWI)Creating a workers paradise, new world orderThe U.S. begins to round up suspected communist, suspend civil rights, meetings broken up by federal agents, dozens deported back to home countriesThe first red scare, the first time the government recognized communism as the threat to American civilizationThe world seems to becoming unhingedB/c of the governments heavy handed response, people become scared the bombings do stop.Still not clear exactly who was behind the bombingsRed scare leads to the American isolationismWorkers do get modest wage increases and less hoursPeople are afraid that returning soldiers would replace them, not a good time to be strikingPeriod of American isolationism, WWI waste of time, money, and American bloodRestrict the number of immigrants allowed into the U.S. which changes this past steady flow (cap at 150,000 immigrants, select amount from each country)How does this change working conditions change U.S. economyWorking conditions improve, wages increaseNo steady supply of labor and so the value of citizen labor rises1920’s characterized by a growing prosperityThe GDP rises by 40% during the 1920’s (considerable economic growth)growth for consumer itemsChange in American Business OperationIn 1902 only 2% of companies used electricityBy 1930 over 85% of U.S. businesses run on electricity, allowing companies greater mobility, don’t have to be near water power, instead they can move closer to (source of labor, raw material, transportation), flexibleChanges the way people live, homes, citiesChanges in new appliancesWashing machines, vacuum cleaners, irons, refrigeratorsQuality of life changes, becomes easierSpreading the use of the automobile, price decrease, more ordinary

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UD HIST 206 - Lecture notes

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