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JLC 205 Study GuideLectures 1 and 2Lecture 1:Basic Overview: - Criminology is the study of the forms, causes, and reactions to criminal behavior. - The Evolution of Criminology~ 1. Theological (1200-1600) very spiritual 2. Metaphysical (1700s) human choice and rationality, 3. Scientific (1800s- to present) actual scientific research measuring social behavior. All by Auguste Comte. - Deviant behavior is outside of the norm. Deviant appearances, getting in someone’s personal space. Deviance does not always mean bad. - Emile Durkheim~ French Sociologist (1800) Crime is NORMAL and a healthy part of a functioning society. - Crime fits into 2 major legal areas: 1. Mala in se: Crimes to be evil ex: murder.2. Mala in prohibita: Behaviors that are illegal because we have decided to prohibit them ex: speeding, gambling. - Undercriminalization: A large group of people believe that a behavior that is legal should have more restrictions EX: Michael Duke CEO of Walmart - Overcriminialization: A large group of people in society that believe the laws against something are just to strict EX: England 1960s Music Ban and Radio Rock. Models of Criminal Law: 1. Consensus Model: As a society we have a consensus on what is right and wrong, this is then reflected in laws.2. Conflict Model: A society made up of many interest groups that are in battle of what should be written in law. Who has the most money and control usually gets what they want. Methods of Measuring Crime: - Funnel Effect~ opportunities for people to get out of this effect. Criminal incidents leave the criminal justice process at various points. - Uniform Crime Report (UCR)~ this is standardized. Crimes known to law enforcement, police have to be notified about crime and then they write a report. -UCR is divided into 2 parts: 1. Part 1 offenses (index): Include murder, rape, robbery, motor vehicle theft, and arson. 2. Part 2 offenses (Not used in crime report): Include prostitution, vandalism, etc. Part 2 has much less stability then part 1. Lots of crimes are not included in this crime rate. Weaknesses of UCR: -Official data is only police reports -Hierarchy Rule- only counting serious events (missing info)-Aggregate- level -Street crime emphasis -Classification and report changes- Redesigning the UCR: NIBRS - National Incident Based Reporting System: included much more detail very few people use this.- NIBRS takes a long time to report although it is better.- Dark Figure of Crime: All of the crimes that get unreported and no record of them taking place. Representing the unknown. - National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): largest data collections. People are randomly picked (over 6 months). Logic to get a larger idea of unreported crime. Weaknesses: Answers might not be accurate, problems with memory, truth, also all telephone based. - National Youth Survey (NYS): victimless crimes captured, more crimes reported. Weaknesses: Memory problems, telling the truth.- Alternative Data: Gathering studies and strategies. Participant observations, case studies, life histories, multi method studies.- Spurious Relationships: Relationships where the cause of the relationship is due to a fact not being measured. Ex: why do teenage boys commit so much crime: hormones, deviant influences, don’t care attitude. The point HIGH CRIME.Lecture 2:Trend and Correlations of Crime:- The recession and crime- some people argue that this makes crime increase by burglary, embezzlement, etc. Could argue that it can cause crime to decrease because there is too much to lose by committing a crime. Currently there is a small crime drop during the recession but crime was previously decreasing. - Crime was increasing until the early 1980s. In 2000 to the present the crime rate has been declining like the same in 1965.- Four major correlations of crime: 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Socioeconomic status 4. Race/ethnicity. -Age and Crime: Criminals tend to be young. There is a spike in adolescence a peak in early adulthood and rapid decline in adulthood.-Gender and Crime: Crime types matter ex: prostitution and child abuse are usually committed by women. Males commit more crimes then females. -Social Class and Crime: More controversial because there is more disagreement. Bimodal relationship crime is higher with lower class, stays low with middle class, and goes high again with the rich. Typical prisoner is someone of extremely low incomes, very little education etc. People of higherclass can navigate the legal system. -Race and Crime: Positive correlation 1 in 9 black males ages 20-34 are currently behind bars (9.3%). 2.6% are Hispanic 1.1% are white. Latino crime historically has been dropped from sample groups.- Mass Media and Crime: Catharsis hypothesis and perception hypothesis, if you involve yourself in violent things (video games watching TV) commit lesscrime because you are getting it out of your system. Perception, exposure to alot of bad things increases your chance of committing crime. Classical Criminology and Deterrence: - Classical school of criminology: Metaphysical Era (mid 1700s) rejected spiritualistic approach, free will and rationality. The social contract- Thomas Hobbes, in society we surrender some freedoms to ensure protection of our natural rights. - Cesare Beccaria: wrote essays on crime and punishment, proposed reform. Punishments should be certain, serve, and swift. - Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism (man is hedonistic) a pleasure seeker.- Early Deterrence Theory: Assumptions that humans have free will we make the decision to commit crime what maximizes our benefits? - Deterrence Theory Research: Era 1: objective properties of punishments. Era2: Objective Properties of Punishment. Many crime types .Era 3: Cross selection perceptions measured, self-report data. Asking people there own perspectives. Problem: measuring everything at once. Era 4: Perceptual Properties of Punishment. Longitudinal current perceptions of risks, time laps, self report. Problem: Still not capturing perceptions. Era 5: Perceptual Properties of Punishments scenario based design. Creating a hypothetical situation and asking people what they would


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AU JLC 205 - Study Guide

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