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Chapter 8 Notes- The Constitution was ratified in 1788- It was used to create a more powerful central government- Skeptics in the time thought it would last no more than a few years- In 1789 Americans celebrated the inauguration of George Washington, the first president- A New Nationo In 1789 the US reached from the Atlantic to the Mississippi and had about 4 million residentso New England was developing a manufacturing sectoro The south was an agricultural region with much less diversityo There was a huge surge in cotton between 1790 and 1815 (3 to 93 millbs)o Invention of the cotton gin played a key role in the soaring productiono In 1790 it was predominantly a rural societyo Only a few cities had more than 5,000 residents, 80% had some ag. Productiono African americans made up about 1/5 of the population and they livedin the south mostly (90+%)o Indians were still there and the British were arming them and bribing them to stop the Americanso Between 1784 and 1790 Indians killed 1500 settlers in Kentuckyo Indians used Spanish supplied weapons in the southo Rapid population growth, cheap land, and new economic opportunities fueled the western migrationo In 1790 almost half of all white Americans were under the age of 16 (rapid childbirth)- A New Governmento On March 4, 1789, the new Congress met in NYC and they only had eight senators and 13 representativeso A month passed before they got quorumo George Washington was unanimously voted in to presidency (69 votes)o John Adams became VP with the second highest votes (34)o Washington was nervous to serveo Life in the 1790’s had a lot of personal rivalries, sectional tensions, and partisan conflicts- The Government’s Structureo Had a larger staff at mt Vernon than he did as presidento Washington named Thomas Jefferson as head of the Department of Stateo Alexander Hamilton was chosen to be the head of the department of Treasuryo Attorney general was occupied by Edmund Randolpho These men were the origin of the President’s cabineto Congress set the number of people in the supreme court to sixo Created thirteen federal district courtso Supreme court was originally more of an itinerant judges, riding the circuit during most of the yearo John Jay was named the first chief justice of the Supreme court- The Bill of Rightso Mass, NY, VA, and NC requested that a bill of rights be added to protect individual freedoms, state’s rights, and civil libertieso James Madison presented the Bill of Rights to Congress in May, 1789 (approved in Sept)o By the end of 1789 ¾ of the states had approved the amendments (12 at the time)o Amendments became effective Dec 15, 1791- Religious Freedomo The men who wrote the Bill of Rights were determined to protect freedom of religion from government interferenceo Statement in the first amendment, highlighted pg. 306- Raising Revenueo Raising money to operate new federal affairs is a critical tasko When GW took office the finances were in shambleso James Madison proposed a tariff on imported goods for revenueo Proposed heavy duties on foreign ships with no commercial treaty with the USo Madison’s goal was to wage economic war with GBo Tonnage Act of 1789—only discrimination was between US and foreign shipso Import duty of 6 cents per ton (import duty), American-built foreign-owned ships paid 30 cents and ships that were foreign built and owned paid 50 cents per tono Tariffs and tonnage duties raised the prices on goods that Americans bought- Hamilton’s Visiono Hamilton had a rocky start as an orphan but he made his way to King’scollege (Columbia) and made his way to Washington’s aid in the continental armyo Consumed with social and political ambitiono He believed that the US needed to have a vibrant economy driven by the engines of capitalism- Establishing the Public Credito Brilliant reports submitted between Jan 1970 and Dec 1971o Hamilton insisted that the state debts from the revolution were a national responsibilityo Called for funding the federal debt at face value-meant that citizens holding war bonds could exchange them for new interest-bearing bondso Declared the federal government should assume state debtsholders of state bonds would exchange them for national bondso The report on public credit included a proposal for a liquor tax to raise revenueo A report recommending the establishment of a national bank and a national minto Report on manufacturers which proposed an extensive program of government aid and other encouragement to stimulate the development of manufacturing enterprises so as to reduce America’s dependence on imported goods- The Emergence of Sectional Differenceso Madison was troubled that speculators would become the chief beneficiarieso Madison was worried that far more of the debt was being paid off to northerners than southerners so he proposed another plano The southern states didn’t want the central government assuming state debts because they had whittled down their debts and the northern states still had huge debts to payo In 1790 Jefferson, Hamilton, and Madison came to a compromisein exchange for moving the permanent national capitol onto the Potomac River, Madison would get enough southern votes to pass the debt assumption plan- A National Banko He modeled a national bank by the bank of Englando Wanted to provide a uniform paper currencyo The bank would remain under government control but private investors would supply 4/5 of the $10 million capital and name 20 of the 25 directorso Bank would provide a stable, flexible national currency o Hamilton convinced Washington to sign the bank bill (lots of controversy)- Encouraging Manufactureso Set in place the capstone of his design for a modern national economyo Ham. Believed that several advantages would flow from the aggressive development of manufactureso Hamilton proposed to use tariffs on imported foreign goods but have exemptions on raw materials needed for manufacturingo Northern and middle Atlantic states would become the chief regions for manufacturing- Hamilton’s Achievemento The treasury department began to retire the rev. war debt and foreigncapital began to flow in once againo Hamilton had established the foundations for a powerful capitalist republico Hamilton was a consummate nationalisto The concerted opposition to Hamilton’s politics and policies soon fractured Washington’s cabinet and spawned the nation’s first political parties- The Republican Alternativeo Hamilton became the

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Clemson HIST 1010 - Chapter 8 Notes

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