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Child Psychopathology Study Guide Exam 4Anxiety- Agoraphobia: Form of anxiety characterized by a fear of being alone in, and avoiding, certain places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing, or in which help may beunavailable in the event of a panic attack- Anxiety: Mood state characterized by strong negative affect, bodily symptoms of tension, and apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune- Anticipatory anxiety: - Behavioral inhibition (BI): Ability to delay one’s initial reactions to events or to stop behavior once it has beguno BIS: Subsystem of the brain that produces anxiety and inhibits ongoing behavior in the presence of novel events, innate fear stimuli, and signals of nonreward or punishment- Compulsions: Repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors or mental acts that are performed in response to an obsession- Exposure: Behavior therapy technique for treating anxiety disorders that exposes the subject to thesource of the fear while providing appropriate and effective ways of coping with the fear (other than escape and avoidance)- Fear: An alarm reaction to current danger or life-threatening emergencies; marked by strong escape-oriented tendencies and a surge in the sympathetic nervous system- Fight/flight response: Immediate reaction to perceived danger or threat whereby efforts are directed toward protecting against potential harm, either by confronting the source of danger (fight), or by escaping the situation (flight)- Flooding: Procedure for treating anxiety that involves prolonged and repeated exposure to the anxiety-provoking situation until the subject’s level of anxiety has diminished - Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): Form of anxiety disorder in which the subject experiences chronic or exaggerated worry and tension, almost always anticipating disaster, even in the absence of obvious reason to do so. The worrying is often accompanied by physical symptoms such as trembling, muscle tension, headache, and nausea- Graded exposure: Gradual exposure of a subject to a feared situation- Negative affectivity: A persistent negative mood evidenced by nervousness, sadness, anger, and guilt- Obsessions: Persistent, intrusive, and irrational thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that focus on improbable or unrealistic events or on real-life events that are greatly exaggerated- Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Form of anxiety disorder in which the subject experiences repeated, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts that cause anxiety and often engages in ritualized behavior to relieve this anxiety- Panic: Group of unexpected physical symptoms of the fight/flight response that occur in the absence of any obvious threat or danger- Panic attack: Sudden and overwhelming period of intense fear of discomfort accompanied by 4 ormore physical and cognitive symptoms characteristic of fight/flight response- Panic disorder: (PD) Form of anxiety disorder characterized by panic attacks and sudden feelings of terror that strike repeatedly and without warning. Physical symptoms include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, and abdominal stress. There is also persistent concern about having another attack and the possible implications and consequences it would bring- Phobia: Fear the occurs at an inappropriate age, persists, is irrational or exaggerated, leads to avoidance of the object or event, and causes impairment in normal routines- Post-traumatic stress disorder: Form of anxiety disorder whereby the child displays persistent anxiety following exposure to or witnessing of an overwhelming traumatic event that is outside therange of usual human experience- Response prevention: Procedure used in the treatment of anxiety that prevents the child from engaging in escape or avoidance behaviors. This procedure is usually used in conjunction with flooding- School refusal behavior: Form of anxious behavior in which the child refuses to attend classes or has difficulty remaining in school for an entire day- Selective Mutism: The inability or refusal to talk in social situations, despite the fact that the subject may talk at home or in other settings- Social phobia: Marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which the subject is exposed to possible scrutiny and embarrassment- Specific phobia: Marked and persistent fear of clearly discernible, circumscribed objects or situations- Systematic desensitization: Three-step behavior therapy technique for treating anxiety whereby the child is taught to relax, an anxiety hierarchy is constructed, and the anxiety-provoking stimuli are presented sequentially while the child remains relaxed- Two-factor theory: Theory used to explain the learning and maintenance of fears through a combination of classical and operant conditioning1. Describe the defining features of anxiety disordersa. Three components of anxietyi. Physical symptomsii. Escape/avoidance behavioriii. Negative cognitions/subjective distress2. Differentiate between the anxiety disorders and between subtypes; know the types of specificphobiasa. Specific phobiai. Animalii. Natural environmentiii. Blood-injection-injuryiv. Situationalv. Other3. Understand course and outcomesa. Onseti. SAD: 7-8 years; earliest onsetii. GAD: 10-14 yearsiii. Specific phobia1. Animals, darkness, insects, Blood-injection-injury: 7-9 years2. PEAK between 10-13 yearsiv. Social phobia: early to mid-adolescence1. Rarely under 10v. OCD: 9-12 years1. Peaks in early childhood/adolescence2. Family history for those with early onsetvi. PD: 15-19 years (post puberty)b. Prevalencei. SAD: 4-10%; more in girlsii. GAD: 3-6%; equaliii. Specific phobia: 4-10%; more in girlsiv. Social phobia: 6-12%; more in girlsv. OCD: 2-3%; more in boys but community samples show no gender diff.vi. PD: 1% of teenagersc. Coursei. SAD: mild to severe; assc. with major stress1. Severe  can persist into adulthood (33%)ii. GAD: symptoms persistiii. OCD: chronic disorder (2-14 years after diagnosed)iv. PD: worst prognosis of all anxiety disordersd. Symptomsi. SAD: 3 or more for at least FOUR WEEKS1. Fear of separation, harm or loss of parent, school refusal behaviorii. GAD: persist over time1. Normally have at least one somatic symptomiii. Social phobia1. Selective mutism  3-4 years onsetiv. OCD: Obsessions and compulsionsv. PD: panic attacks4. Know the developmental changes associated with typical fears and with the onset of anxiety disordersa. Moderate

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Pitt PSY 1270 - Exam 4

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