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Study Guide: Learning & Motivation QUIZ TWOLecture One- Measuring a conditioned responseo Conditioned Response Latency Latency: Used to indicate time until the CR occurs after the CS has begun  Identify how strong the association is and how well the subject learned the relationship between the CS and US Response is slow to get started  Example- In short delayo Predicting there is a short latency to the CR – CR will occur as soon asthe CS begins and until the US beginso Short latency in short delay procedures- In long delayo See the response occur and continue throughout the interval of the CS onset and the US onseto Shift in latency  subject starts to figure out when the US is going to occur CR starts a little bit later after each trial Stronger association, shift in the latency, then longer latency within the CR Indicates stronger association- In trace conditioningo CS stops before the US onset o Before the subject has learned the relationship, may show CR during the CSo If CR occurs during the interval, indicates better association (depends on how long the trace interval is – if it’s short, don’t see much of a latency shift)- In CS alone testo Measure response to the CS all by itself after we believe the subject has learned the relationshipo Get a great measure of the response that isn’t contaminated by the USand US – can measure the full strength of that CRo Magnitude of the conditioned response (strength of CR) Example: Pavlov measured the amount of saliva – more saliva = stronger response Example: Rats & shock- Could strap onto the rats’ legs something that measures muscle tensing (cringing = more muscle contraction)- Explicitly unpaired control procedureo Need a control/comparison (novel stimulus with US, creating a CS)o False positive: see behaviors developing and changing that aren’t due to our stimuluso Explicitly unpaired control group Present same two stimuli that we’re using in the experimental group For the control group, present them in random order and far enough apart so they’re no way the subject can form an association – so no conditioning can take place Everyday, you determine a new order Control group gets shocks over course of same trial in random order End of training period, looked for CR in experimental group- Do we see response occurring anywhere in the control group?- Could see sensitization because you’re exposed to stimuluso If we only see the behavior developing in the experimental group, then it’s not sensitizationo If we see sensitization in BOTH groups Pseudoconditioning: false conditioning (in experimental group) Looks like behavior change due to classical conditioning but actually due to sensitization effect- If it’s a real CR, once the association has been learned AND nothing happens to break that association, then you should see CR for a long timeo BUT in pseudoconditioning, if you allow a day to pass, you won’t see the response- Effectiveness of the CS and the USo Novelty For both the CS and US- If you choose novel stimuli: subject is not familiar with them and likely to produce faster conditioningo Why? Aren’t associated with anything else initially Habituation: chances are they have habituated to it if it’s not novel CS familiar- Takes longer to develop an associated with the US- Proposed that subject begins to pay attention to what is consistent and changing in environment and tried to eliminate possible stimuli – then focuses on the CS- Latest inhibition: CS pre-exposure effecto If you’re exposed to the CR, it’ll be harder to develop an association US familiar- Longer to develop associated with CS- In the pairing, it’s call US pre-exposure effecto Intensity More intense the CS, the more intense the US, the better the learning will be Make the stimuli intense enough to be salient (relative to the background)- Example: small flashlight in a dark room is more salient then a small flashlight in a lit room Yerkes-Dodson Law: law of intensity- Optimal performance/behavior with intensity- Inverted U function that for every stimulus, there is an optimal intensity thatleads to highest level of behavior- If you keep increasing the intensity  decrease in the behavior/performanceo Contiguity Closer in time and space, the likely they will be associated with each othero Relevance/ CS-US belongingness Idea that certain types of CS’s are more easily associated with other US’s (internal/external)- External CS will pair better with an external US; internal CS will pair better with an internal US Garcia and Koelling Experiment (1966)- Conditioning phase: trained half of the rats with a complex CS (taste + audiovisual clue)o When the rats started licking (internal), then lights would flash and sounds went off (external)- Half of the rats were followed by a US that was either external or internalo Test: took first group and split them up Shock group- Either received the taste alone; rats kept drinking the water with no fear- Received the audiovisual clue aloneo Given plain watero Rats associated lights/sounds to the shock; they’d drink but stop as soon as the CS went off Illness group- Either received the taste aloneo Drank very little because it was associated with sickness- Received the audiovisual aloneo Drank a bunch of water because they didn't associate the flashing lights with illness- Concluded that we will associate stimuli that are external-external or internal-internalLecture Two- Paradigms vs. Procedureso Paradigms: Larger model that is trying to measure a particular phenomenon; can measure different ways with any of the procedureso Procedure: specific ways that you present the CS and US (how they end, begin, how much time is in between each etc.)- Excitatory Conditioning Paradigms: Seeing a CR developo First Order Conditioning Paradigm Any situation where you’re developing a new relationship between the US and potential CS Can use any of the five procedures with this paradigm; should choose procedure that will produce best and fastest learning Pavlov used this  Example: Short-delay procedure- Produces the fastest learning, strongest association in the SHORT term- Takes some trials to see CR – once you can see the CR, that’s the point wherewe have a first order relationship between the CS and USNovel CS-Sometimes don't always see a relationship developing with the first ordero

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Pitt PSY 0405 - Quiz 2

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