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COMM 25902 – Communication TheoryFinal Exam Study Guide1. What types of groups did Janis focus on in his theory of groupthink?a. Groups that are goal or task oriented2. According to groupthink theory, what is cohesiveness, and why might it become aproblem?a. Cohesiveness: unity and consensus is a main goal, so much so that it leaves little room for disagreement3. Explain the concept of affiliative constraints presented in groupthink theory.a. Affiliative constraints: when one member withholds their opinion for fear of being rejected or disrupting cohesion. Because these are task or goal oriented groups they strive for cohesion so much so that there is no alternative opinions expressed 4. Describe the antecedent conditions of groupthink (i.e., group cohesiveness,structural factors, and group stress) and how the conditions relate to concurrenceseeking. Note: Use Figure 14.1 in the course textbook as a guide (West & Turner, 2010,p. 248).a. Antecedent conditions of groupthink1. structural factorsA. Group insulation, isolation causes insulation from outside events so that they don’t affect group ideas B. Lack of impartial leadership- personal goals firstC. Failure to establish clear decision making procedures2. Group stressA. Internal or ExternalB. stress like time, makes decision makers break down, look to each other for moral supportC. Pressure to come to a conclusion 5. Define and give an example of each of the 8 symptoms of groupthink. Note: SeeFigure 14.1 (West & Turner, 2010, p. 248).A. Overestimation of group- invulnerability or inherent moralityB. Closed mindedness- out group stereotypesC. Collective rationalization -collective rationalization- minimize warnings that should prompt reconsiderationD. Pressure toward uniformity- self censorship and illusion of unanimity- silence is consentE. Pressure on dissenters- self appointed mind gaurds- hide info, pressure toward majority opinonF. Self censorship- don’t talkG. Integration 6. Geertz et al.’s organizational culture theory says that “meanings” within anorganization are shared through exchanges of verbal and nonverbal symbols. UsingTable 16.1 in the course textbook as a guide (see West & Turner, 2010, p. 279),familiarize yourself with the different types of verbal symbols, behavioral symbols, andphysical symbols.A. Verbal Symbolsa. Jokes, personal stories, nickanmesb. Jargon, myths, corporate storiesB. Behavioral Symbolsa. Ceremonies, ritualsb. Traditions, customs and punishmentsC. Physical symbolsa. Art, designb. Logos, décor, dress, appearence7. Define and provide an example of each of the following concepts as described inorganizational culture theory: (a) ritual performances, (b) passion performances, (c)social performances, (d) political performances, and (e) enculturationperformances.A. Ritual Performancesa. Performed on a regular and recurring basisb. Personal, task, social, organizationalB. Passion: shows knowledge of the story- enthusiastically relate to othersC. Social: civility and politeness- courtesy, good morning, how are youD. Politics: expressing influence- communicate a desire to influence othersE. Enculturation: learning about the organization- knowledge and skills to be a contributing memberPublic/Rhetorical Communication: Chapters 18 & 208. What is Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric?A. Available means of persuasion, includes memory, style, delivery, arrangement, invention9. What is an audience analysis, and how does it relate to Aristotle’s rhetoric?A. Audience analysis—B. analyze the audience, use ethos, pathos and logos to persuade C. Must be ethical use of the above10. Aristotle’s proofs refer to the means of persuasion, and, for Aristotle, 3 proofs exist:ethos, logos, and pathos. Define and provide an example of each of the 3 proofs.A. Ethos- credibility i.e. credentials, experienceB. Pathos- emotion, appeal to pity, fear, sadness, excitementC. Logos- logic, the arrangement of proofs like syllogisms to get your point across and appeal to the desire for logic11. List, define, and describe each of the canons or rhetoric presented. Note: Use TableA. Memory: mastery and rehearsal of contentB. Style: use of languageC. Delivery: nonverbal presentation of ideas, i.e. vocal cues and eye contactD. Arrangement: organization, logicalE. Invention: construction and development of content18.1 in the course textbook as a guide (West & Turner, 2010, p. 317).12. Compare and contrast the rational world paradigm to Fisher’s narrative paradigm.Narrative Paradigm Rational World ParadigmHumans are storytellers Humans are rationalDecisions are based on “good reasons” Decisions are based on argumentsGood reasons are biology, culture, tradition Arguments adhere to some logical constructionRationality based internally Rationality based on formal reasoningThe world is experienced by a set of stories being toldthat we have to choose fromWorld can be reduced to a series of logical relationships13. Explain the concepts of coherence and fidelity as outlined in the narrativeparadigm. Provide examples.Fidelity: does the story “ring true”, does it sit right, logic of reasons- values in the narrative, and are they useful for ideal human behavior?, relevance, pattern of reasoning, biography, character, culture. Does it make sense? Does it affect me in some way?Coherence: - Structural: do the elements of the story flow smoothly- Material: congruence between the story being told and other stories that seem to relate, compare it to other stories they have heard that relate to the same theme- Characterological: are the characters in the story believable, should show continuity of character in thoughts, motives and actionsCOMM 25902 – Final Exam Study Guide 2Mass/Mediated Communication: Chapters 21, 22, 23, & 2514. What is the main point of Hall’s cultural studies? Note: See “Theory at a Glance” boxon page 363 of the course textbook as a starting point (West & Turner, 2010).Cultural studies: not what information is presented but whose information it is, culture is influenced by a few, powerful groups especially within the media, media messages are pervasive and a primary means by which a lot of people learn about the world around them, media communicate a powerful idea about society and one’s place in it 15. Define each of the following terms and describe how they are discussed within thecontext of cultural studies: ideology, hegemony, false consciousness, and counter hegemony.Hegemony: influence,

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KSU COMM 25902 - Final Exam Study Guide

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