Pitt ANTH 1784 - Review Sheet for Exam # 3

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JAPANESE SOCIETY (ANTH 1784)Instructor: Dr. Gabriella LukacsReview Sheet for Exam # 3Definitions:1) Nikkeijin – Japanese emigrants from Japan and their descendants that reside in a foreign country (second generation Japanese – people of Japanese descent living in Peru, Brazil, and the United States)2) kaigai chuuzai – a station or assignment at a remote post overseas (working abroad)3) media localization – media imported from Japan is censored or edited in order to fit the taste of the particular local audiences. Ex. scenes from Pokemon will be edited for United States understanding4) cultural proximity – why Taiwanese viewers prefer Japanese dramas over United States shows – cultural closeness5) transnational regional modernity – it is modernity, what does it mean to be a modern in Asia6) soft power – a form of power that arises from the attractiveness of a country’s cultural values7) otaku (both American otaku and Japanese otaku) – American: mainly men – fans of Japanese animation culture, Japanese: negative connotation8) mass middle-class society – the people who define with the middle class based on their consumption9) gross national cool – Japan started exporting cool and cute commodities10) culturally neutral media – reception of Japanese dramas in Taiwan, if export to the West, will notnotice it is JapaneseQuestions:1) What are the main characteristics of cute culture and cute aesthetics?Cute culture is childlike, sweet, adorable, innocent, pure, simple, vulnerable, weak2) How does Iwabuchi’s study of the reception of Japanese dramas in Taiwan criticize dominant theories of cultural globalization?Dominant theory of cultural globalization is based on the centered periphery model, if culture goes beyond national boundaries, it will go to the rest of the world – center periphery model doesnot always work3) Scholars have identified and analyzed a conspicuous rise in Japanese cultural exports during the 1990s. What are the main venues through which Japanese popular culture entered global circulation during the 1990s?Japanese mass culture became popular in East AsiaAnime is becoming popular worldwideLocalized version of Japanese mass cultureHollywood buys ideas from Japan (Ring, Shall We Dance)Media bootleggers and fansubbersMulti-cultural television channels4) Japan’s place in the global economy has changed significantly in the past two decades. Describe the major changes.Rapid growth in offshore manufacturingExport oriented economy: sharp rise in transnational work assignmentsTokyo is an international business centerDirect foreign investment in Japan is increasing very slowly15) In Lukacs’s Scripted Affects, why do male viewers find workplace dramas more appealing than love dramas?Workplace dramas advocate the importance of social realism and can be enjoyed as independent episodes, directors of workplace dramas say that love dramas are unrealistic6) In her discussion of the global popularity of Iron Chef, what evidence does Lukacs give to argue against the idea that Japan is accumulating soft power through exporting popular culture?Reception of Iron Chef in the US did not include soft power in Japan, because they did not connect the show with Japan and did not like the same things Japanese people liked7) In Yoshimoto Banana’s novel, what compensates for the crumbling of the family and how?Complete commodities, consumption compensates for the loss of the family8) According to Kurotani, what are the contradictory expectations Japanese workers face in transnational contexts of employment?Japanese men who work abroad are expected to be flexible to adapt to the different work environment, but they will be shipped back to Japan so they have to remain accustomed to the Japanese culture as well9) According to Faier, why do rural men go to Filipina bars?They feel cosmopolitan there, no chances to marry Japanese women11) In chapter 2, how does Lukacs explain the failure of the primetime drama titled Single Lives? They didn’t like it because the main role did not fit the tarento and did not play the tarento, Japanese television remarketed themselves from narrated based entertainment to lifestyle based entertainment. Tarentos endorse commodities12) In Kurotani’s view, why is Japanese home cooking more important for Japanese families living abroad than for those living in Japan? That is how women keep their husbands connected to Japan when they are abroad13) How are migrant workers represented in Swallowtail? They are free and can do whatever they want and contrasts the lifestyle of migrants of real Japanese culture which is actually highly regimented14) What are the main characteristics of hardware and software that Japan exported until the 1990s?Japan can sell only culturally neutral hardward, buying up Hollywood to obtain software15) According to Iwabuchi Koichi, why are Japanese dramas more popular with Taiwanese youth than American dramas?Cultural proximity and transnational regional modernity, Taiwanese viewers find the distance more manageable, the mode of representation is closer to them (sense of intimacy), Japanese dramas contain a lot of trendy fashions as well16) How would you characterize American anime fans’ relationship to Japanese culture based on the documentary titled Otaku Unite? Their relationship to Japanese anime is very limited to just anime and the cartoon culture17) In Sawa Kurotani’s opinion (in Home Away from Home) how has the practice of kaigai chuuzai changed in the last twenty years?2Being in the elitist position is an honor (1980s), but in the 1990s, it became more common sense18) According to Lukacs, why the reception of Iron Chef in the US did not support the idea of Japan’s emerging global soft power?They could connect to Japan19) Why did Kitchen become a global hit?It represents Japan as a country with less cultural uniqueness and more economic clout20) In chapter 3, how does Lukacs explain the young female scriptwriter boom? Why were young female scriptwriters essential to the success of trendy dramas?They needed to bridge the gap between the viewers who were usually women and the scriptwritersBonus PointsYou will have the opportunity to earn three bonus points. The three bonus questions will be based on (1) the lecture on imperialism (1 point), (2) Mark Driscoll’s essay titled “Cool(ie) Japan,” (1 point), and Ken Kawashima’s essay titled “The Birth of the Uncontrollable Colonial Surplus: A


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