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Societies 00053/18/13 Lecture 13So far this semester…- Set out structure of society at a global levelo Economic, political, identities- Some axes of inequality in that global context, how people think of them, attempts to affect them- Conflict we see in different spheres of social life including ways they are related to globalstructure and inequalities- Ways that structure, inequalities, conflicts are seen in changing ways social life is organizedDeviance“Behavior that is banned, censured, stigmatized or penalized (pg. 219)”- Sane vs. Insaneo Common sense: gives us information, observations, interpretationso Criminals and deviants are different from normal peopleo Fox News: rapists are usually people we know – cannot completely defend self Democrats – why not prevent rapes from occur, teach men not to rape Republicans – inevitable to rape, women need a way to defend themselvesbuy carrying a gun or any other weapono Steubenville “We all have gone against the norm in some manner, we have all been deviant.”Essentialist View of Deviance- Deviant behaviors are objective, universally recognized as deviant- Question: what are the causes of being differento Milgram Experiment: obedience and shock values Circumstances can shape behavior more than we think The nature of deviant behavior is a matter of perspectiveSocial Constructionist View of Deviance- Categories of “deviant” are social, not naturalo Based on perspectives and interests of the observer Ex. High school party where everyone but one person is drinking- Parents may think that this person is good and is a role model- Other high school students may think they are going against the norm 47%/Takers – Mitt Romney Speech- People who are pooro Take/use public services from society without giving backo Law-abiding citizens – have the right to use public servicesCategories Do Not Equal Reality- Calling anything deviant only makes sense in a system that makes it seem deviantSocieties 0005- Question: Why, in what circumstances is something seen as deviant? What are societal reactions to deviance?Characteristics of Deviance1. Behavior of Characteristics- Some people in a society find offensive or reprehensible- Generates disapproval, punishment, condemnation or, or hostility toward, the actor orprofessor – or would generate if discovered- Deviates from the “norm”o Not a quality of the act a person commitso Norms vary from one culture to another, within any given culture Deviant behavior varies with norms, across groups2. A Non-Evaluative Term (Academically)- Describes behaviors considered to be out-of-norm by culture of study- People doing things (in ways) that are not take for granted3. A label used to maintain power, control, and position of a dominant group- Powerful people decide what acts are deviant or just, serious or minoro White Collar Crime (federal) vs. Blue Collar Crime (street)4. A label that is attached to acts and also people- Labeling TheorySocieties 00053/20/13 Lecture 14Labeling TheoryThree Stages of Deviance1. Primary Deviancea. Person commits actb. Person is considered deviant, treated as a deviantc. Person considers self as deviant2. Secondary Deviancea. Self identified deviant commits more deviant acts- Ex. employment applications, check box for committing acts of crime, may deter from hiring  goes back to deviant behaviors/crimes (self-fulfilling prophecy)3. Tertiary Deviancea. Attempts to normalize deviant behavior- Ex. Autism Rights Movement/Autism Liberation Movementso Autism = Neural Diversityo Anti-cure perspective: taking a disease and turning it into a diversity cure for autism is bad because takes away neural diversity and turns back into mainstream perspectiveso New York City – Stop & Frisk Lawo Murdero Debates about what is murder – does abortion count?o What is the real deviant? – leader, paid persono Intent to murder vs. murder by self-defenseRe-Applying Labeling Theory- Labeling based on characteristics, not individual behaviors (stereotypes)- Crime- Sometimes the person is (or organization’s) label wins out- Terrorismo When are you a terrorist, freedom fighter, defender?Social Control- How to keep people form participating in deviant acts?o Keeping deviants in prisono Judging person wearing a costume- Norm and Social Control- Everyone, everywhere is subjected to certain normso Norms  punishments or sanctionso No society where “anything goes” – there are always normsForms of Social Control- Internalo Socialization: when norms of society accepted as valid, the norms are internalizedSocieties 0005- Externalo What about people who don’t have norms internalized?o System of sanctions (rewards and punishments) to induce others to conform to a normo Negative social control (coercive): making people do something for themSanctions- Positive Sanction – Reward- Negative Sanction – Punishmento Social control usually relies on negative sanctions- Informalo Interpersonal actions between people remind that behavior is upsetting or pleasingo Informal agents of social control act on their own- Formalo Criminal justice systemo Class attendanceActivity that was a crime, but now is not- During women’s suffrage movemento Women dressed as men to vote- Prohibitiono United States own mistakeo 19th Amendment  21st Amendment to amend the previous amendment- Urinating in public used to be a sex offense – now it is just a crimeSocieties 00053/25/13 Lecture 15What is Religion? – set of beliefs that separate the sacred and profane, beliefs in some things as sacred- Literal/Metaphorical Meetingo Separates sacred matter from profane matters Profane – worldly, not linked with religion/religious beliefso Practices Rituals and totems, book discusso Manifest in a moral community, usuallyPerspective on Religion- Conflict- Functionalist Theory- Symbolic InteractionismConflict Perspective on Religion- Critical of Religiono Karl Marx “Religion is the sign of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a hitless world…its is the opium of the masses.”- Religious teachings mirror society’s inequalities- Legitimates inequalitieso Tend to support existing social arrangements as Godly desires Ex. leader of state divinely appointed; caste system; antebellum (pre-civil war) US slaveryFunctionalism/Functionalism Perspective on Religion- What does religion do? Durkheimo Answers questions about meaning of lifeo Provides emotional comforto Sets up


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