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AttitudesEvaluations of various aspects of the social worldExplicit Attitudes – attitudes we consciously endorse and can easily reportImplicit Attitudes – attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconsciousWhy Study Attitudes?Evaluation is basic building block of social thoughtAttitudes affect behaviorFunctions of AttitudesKnowledgeIdentity/Self-ExpressionSelf-EsteemEgo DefensiveImpression MotivationComponents of AttitudesAffectiveBehavioralCognitiveAttitude FormationClassical Conditioning – form of learning in which one stimulus, initially neutral, acquires the capacity to evoke reactions through repeated pairing with another stimulusTook a neutral stimulus and paired it with images of positive/negative influencesOperant Conditioning – form of learning in which responses that lead to positive outcomes or that permit avoidance of negative outcomes are strengthenedA behavior being reinforced or punishedObservational LearningIf a person plays with a dog, the dog is seen as a positive thingHeredityAttitudes are shaped by genes, some linked by geneticsReligious beliefs, political beliefs`Strength of AttitudesStrong AttitudesStableMore resistant to persuasion attemptsMore committed to view, more certain it is correctPredict behavior betterEmbeddedness – more connected to things inside the brainAttitude-Behavior ConsistencyFactors Increasing Consistency:Lapiere 1934 – Chinese couple went to many establishments (180 restaurants, 60 hotels, refused 1), the establishments were surveyed saying they would not serve a Chinese couple.Attitude and Behavior were differentStrength of AttitudeKnowledge AmountDirect ExperiencePersonal RelevanceOwning a dog, stronger attitude toward dogsAccessibility of AttitudeDrinking age example, attitude pertaining to group of people will have a high accessibility of attitudeLow Self-MonitoringNot likely to adjust their behavior depending on situationHIGH SELF-MONITORING: wants to fit in, will not have their attitude gage their behaviorTime PressureDo not have a lot of time to make a decisionNo time = act upon attitudeNo Situational ConstraintsFree to display behavior upon attitudePeer pressureTheory of Planned Behavior – theory suggesting that in addition to an attitude toward a given behavior and the subjective norms about it, individuals also consider their ability to perform the behaviorAttitude + Subjective Norms + Perceived Control  Behavioral Intention  BehaviorPluralistic IgnoranceWhen we collectively misunderstand what attitudes others hold, and believe erroneously, that others have different attitudes than ourselves.“Are there any questions?” If there is none, everyone thinks that everyone understood the materialWidespread misrepresentation of private views – tendency on public behavior to identify public normsSocial norm misrepresents the prevailing sentimentsPrentice and Miller 1993 – Ivy League DrinkingStudy 1: Students consistently estimate the typical student is more comfortable with drinking that they themselves areOwn and Average Students Comfort with DrinkingScale of 1-11 (1 being not comfortable at all with drinking)Asked: How comfortable are you/the average student with drinkingSelf comfort level is not that high versus the rest average was higherStudy 2: Male students internalized perceived social normsThey came to be more comfortable with the idea of drinking by the end of the semesterFemales face alienationMales were lower in September than DecemberFemales were higher in September than DecemberPersuasionEfforts to change others’ attitudes through the use of various kinds of messagesMere Exposure Effect – by having seen an object previously, but not necessarily remembering having done so, attitudes toward an object can become more positive Ex. Product PlacementYale Attitude Change ApproachWho – Source of CommunicationSexual appeal, beautiful peopleExperts, celebrityEx. Famous athletes advertise for sports wearHow trustworthy or credible someone wasEx. Coca Cola – SantaSimilar to the intended audienceSaid What – Nature of CommunicationFear arousing (moderate)Ex. Johnson CommercialsEvoke a good emotionHumor Ex. Betty White commercialMake it seem like its not persuasiveViral marketing not making it seem like it is advertising to desired topicCreate a two sided argument, but in the end make desired topic more appealingShould not bash the competitorTo Whom – Nature of AudienceYounger kids, 18-20 year olds are extremely persuadableAudiences already in a good moodLow intelligenceDumb vs. distractibleModerate self-esteem is more persuadableLOW: “That won’t work on me”HIGH: “I’m already good enough”Fear Arousing Communication – persuasive messages that attempt to change peoples’ attitudes by arousing fear.Dual Process ModelsELM – Elaboration Likelihood ModelCentral – processing of info in a persuasive message that involves careful consideration of message content and ideasPeripheral – processing of info in a persuasive message that involves the use of simples rules of thumb or mental shortcutsHSM – Heuristic Systematic ModelSystematic – processing of info in a persuasive message that involves careful consideration of message content and ideasHeuristic – processing of info in a persuasive message that involves the use of simples rules of thumb or mentalEffects of RoutesCentral/SystematicPay attention to:Quality of argumentsLast longer and more resistant to changePeripheral/HeuristicPay attention to:Credibility of speakerNumber of argumentsLength of argumentEasier to persuadeWhat Determines Route?MotivationPersonal RelevanceNeed for CognitionAbilityCognitive LoadSo Does Advertising Work?Advertising is a persuasive messageSplit cable market tests21% boost in salesWhy Yield to Persuasion Attempts?Hold more accurate view of worldBe consistent within yourselfGain social approvalResisting PersuasionReactanceNegative reaction to threats to one’s personal freedomsReactance often increased resistance to persuasion and can even produce negative attitude change or that opposite to what was intendedForewarningAdvance knowledge that one is about to become the target of an attempt at persuasion.Forewarning often increases resistance to the persuasion that followInoculationTechnique for increasing individual’s resistance to a strong argument by first giving them weakEasily defected versions of itCognitive DissonanceInternal state that results when individuals notice

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Pitt PSY 0105 - Chapter 4: Attitudes

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