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Use the slides as your guide. Anything on them is fair game. Think about the central question of each slide and try to anticipate questions that could be asked.Exam I ReviewTo prepare for the exam, please use the following tools:1) lecture notes slides 2) the q-work keys posted on Bb3) the book4) Me office hours or appointmentGo through the membrane physiology questions after the blog questions NOW. Giveyourself some time. These are hard but will help make sure you can work throughthe toughest of the material.Use the slides as your guide. Anything on them is fair game. Think about the centralquestion of each slide and try to anticipate questions that could be asked. Homeostasis1) Define homeostasis.The process of maintaining a constant internal environment within an organism.The regulation of the body’s internal environment, keeping it relatively stable. The variables are divided into: osmolarity, temperature, pH, nutrients, heart rate, blood glucose levels, water, sodium, calcium, hormones and other chemicals. Homeostasis DOES NOT mean equilibrium. In a steady state, there is no net movement of materials between compartments.2) Be familiar with the characteristics of homeostasis.- To maintain homeostasis, the body must maintain mass balance. o For example, water loss by sweating and urinating must be balanced by water intake.- Excretion clears substances from the bodyo Saliva, sweat, breast milk and hair all contain substances that have been cleared from the body- Control systems have three components: an input, a controller that integrates incoming information and initiates an appropriate response, and an output signal that creates a response.3) Explain multiple mechanisms of homeostasis.4) Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback.- Positive feedback:o Not homeostatico The response reinforces the stimulus rather than decreasing or removing it.Exam I Reviewo The response sends the regulated variable cycle of ever increasing response and sends the system temporarily out of control.o Requires some intervention or event outside the loop to stop the response.o Examples: childbirth and orgasm- Negative feedback:o Homeostatic (designed to keep the system at or near a set-point so that the regulated variable is relatively stable).o Receptors “feel” a change in set variable, control center sends commands to effectors, which release hormones to change set variable back to homeostatic levels.o5) Identify specific examples of positive and negative feedback.- Positive: childbirth and orgasm- Negative: rising body temperature, followed by sweating to lower body temperature.6) Understand the role of feed-forward control in human physiology.- A few reflexes have evolved that enable the body to predict that a change is about to occur and start the response loop in anticipation of the change. The salivation reflex is a good example of this. The sight, smell, or even the thought of food is enough to start our mouths watering in expectation of eating food.Cell Physiology1) Name and identify the various functions of cell organelles (refer to reading from book for background).- Cell membrane: phospholipid bilayer that is semi-permeable; separates the inside environment of the cell from the outside. - Cytoskeleton:o Microvilli: increase cell surface areao Microfilaments: network just inside the cell membraneo Microtubules: largest cytoskeleton fibero Intermediate filaments: myosin and keratin- Peroxisomes: contain enzymes that break down fatty acids and some foreign materials- Lysosomes: small, spherical storage vesicles that contain powerful digestive enzymes- Centrioles: made from microtubules and direct DNA movement during cell division- Mitochondria: spherical or elliptical organelles with a double wall that creates two separate compartments within the organelle. The inner matrix is surrounded by aExam I Reviewmembrane that folds into leaflets called cristae. The intermembrane space plays an important role in ATP production. Site of most ATP synthesis in the cell.- Golgi apparatus: consists of a series of hollow curved sacs called cisternae stacked ontop of one another and surrounded by vesicles. Participates in protein modification and packaging.- ER:o Rough ER: granular appearance due to rows of ribosomes. Main site of protein synthesis.o Smooth ER: lacks ribosomes. Synthesizes lipids and concentrates and stores calcium ions.- Nucleus: control center of the cell, surrounded by nuclear envelope pierced by pores to allow communication with the cytoplasm. Outer membrane connects to the ER. Usually also contains from one to four larger dark-staining bodies of DNA, RNA, and nucleoli.2) Characterize the structure and functions of the cell membrane, including phospholipids, various proteins etc.- Cell membrane serves like the walls of a house. Some molecules can easily slip through, while others cannot.- Proteins are important for controlling what enters and leaves the cell.- Responsible for physical boundary, selection, motility, signal transduction, and cellular recognition.- Phospholipids:o Made out of: a large molecule made from smaller molecules Polar non-lipid group Phosphate Glycerol Fatty acid (FA) [relatively non-polar]o Biochemical properties: Polar (charged) region is attracted to other polar molecules Non-polar region (no net charge) is attracted to other non-polar molecules.- Where the long hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids are. Amphipathic: has polar and non-polar domain- Determinants: size, polarity- Permeable: water, gases, lipids- Impermeable: ions, proteins, large polar molecules3) Understand the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane.- Peripheral proteins can be removed without disrupting integrity of the membrane- Phospholipid heads face the aqueous intracellular and extracellular compartmentsExam I Review- Lipid tails form the interior layer of the membrane- Cholesterol molecules insert themselves into the lipid layer- Transmembrane proteins cross the lipid bilayer4) List the functions of membrane proteins.- Integral proteins: tightly bound to the membrane and the only way they can be removed is by disrupting the membrane structure with detergents or other harsh methods that destroy the membrane’s integrity (transmembrane proteins and lipid-anchored proteins)- Peripheral proteins: attached to other membrane proteins by non-covalent interactions and can be separated from the membrane by chemical methods that do not disrupt the

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GVSU PSY 303 - Exam I Review

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