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Sociology Test 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 1 What does it mean to see the general in the particular Sociological Perspective aim to see general patters in the behavior of particular individuals 2 What are some examples of how the situation of women in society can be seen in terms of sociological trends instead of the personalities of individual women Ex Women and Workplace Statistically being born female is associated with likelihood of making less money than men This doesn t mean some women don t achieve high salaries 3 Why is it useful to see the strange in the familiar The sociological perspective reveals to us the initially strange idea that society shapes what we think and do 4 Why would culture shock be seen as a useful tool for seeing things in a sociological light Foreign or regional travel experiencing new class or religious contexts Forces us to rethink common sense Comfortable to rethink things are natural Food Common sense notions of what animals we eat what constitutes a meal Family Marriage as a choice of two people in love not common throughout the world More likely decided by others Physical contact kissing close talking Conversation ex Americans known for small talk 5 Why is marginality or being an outsider important for having a good sociological perspective The greater a person s marginality the better able they are to use the sociological perspective To become better at using the sociological perspective step back from familiar routines using sociological techniques 6 How is the concept of social crisis associated with the rise of sociology as a discipline Periods of change or crisis makes everyone feel off balance encouraging the use of sociological perspective In the US the Great Depression 1930s events of the 1960s aftermath of 9 11 ex Privacy sparked sociological thinking 7 What were the dramatic social changes associated with the Great Transformation during the 1600s and 1700s and how were they related to the rise of sociology Industrialization rise of factory based economy Urbanization explosive growth of cities Rights of man new ideas about democracy and political rights These transformations drove the development of sociology 8 What are some of the main social changes that took place when society transformed from an agricultural base to an industrial base Farms Factories Family work industrial wage labor Home becomes domain of women Large families to Small Families children less desired in urban settings Homogenous town cultural diverse cities pursue individual interests anonymity Lower standard of living higher standard growth of living wages consumerism Life expectancy quality idea of retirement 9 What are the three main ideas associated with Comte s explanation of how the world changed leading into the development of the modern world 1 Theological stage Pre Enlightenment Idea of Reason 2 Metaphysical stage Rights of man Civil War 3 Scientific stage Positivism understanding the world based on science 10 What are the main ideas of the a structural functional approach 2 social conflict approach and 3 the symbolic interaction approach a Structural Functional Approach a frame work for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability its vision of society as stable and orderly b Social Conflict Approach a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change class race ethnicity gender age c Symbolic Interaction Approach a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals society basically amounts to people interacting this approach risks overlooking 11 How does Durkheim s theory about suicide demonstrate how people are affected by broader social trends Major factor is Social Integration the degree to which people are tied to their social group He found the highest suicide rates for Protestants males singles and wealthy persons He found lowest rates for Jews Catholics females marrieds and poor persons Higher suicide among whites and men reflect greater wealth and freedom experience life more as determined by self Lower rates among women and people of color reflect limited social choices Tend to be more highly integrated socially 12 Positivist sociology the study of society based on scientific observation of social behavior It is based on empirical evidence information we can verify with our senses Ex 1 Differences in the behavior of females and males are just human nature 2 The US is a middle class society in which most people are more or less equal 3 People marry because they re in love The idea of Objectivity personal neutrality in conducting research It allows the facts to speak for themselves and not be influenced by the personal values and biases of the researcher 13 Interpretive sociology the study of society that focuses on discovering the meanings people attach to their social world Verstehen is understanding It is the interpretive sociologist s job not just to observe what people do but also to share in their world of meaning 14 Critical sociology the study of society that focuses on the need for social change Comparison Positivist believes society is an orderly system and that there s an objective reality Critical believes society is patterns of inequality and reality is that some categories of people dominate others Chapter 2 1 Society Refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture 2 Culture The ways of thinking the ways of acting and the material objects that together form people s way of life 3 Symbols Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture 4 5 Sapir Whorf thesis People see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language Language A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another Thoughts are bound by way language shapes reality Critique Evidence does not support the notion that language determines reality The fact that we can translate languages suggests language realities aren t completely distinct 6 Values Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable good and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living 7 Beliefs Specific statements that people hold to be true 8 Norms Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members 9 Mores Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance

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Ole Miss SOC 101 - Test 1 Study Guide

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