Clemson PSYCH 201 - Methods of Psychology

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Methods of PsychologyMonday, August 26, 2013Clever Hans-German psychologist believed horses were much smarter than they were allowed to be. Educated the horse Clever Hans for several years on subjects such as history, arithmetic, science, etc.-The horse never truly learned these subjects but rather queued into what the audience wanted-The instructor's expectations influenced the outcome of the experiments-Double blind experiment- neither patients nor doctors know who has real medicine and who has the placebo-Observer-expectancy effects-Facilitated communication: scientists attempted to break through to handicapped persons so they'd communicate -Anti-science: the attempted study of phenomena-Therapeutic touch-rearrange patient's "life energy"-Lessons from Clever Hans1. All people are gullible, so it is important to be skeptical ; also be open minded2. Any finding must be verified by careful observations made under controlled conditions-Beware of pseudoscience and anti-science 3. Methodologies used to make observations must rule out all biases, such as observer-expectancy effects.Three Main Types of Research Designs -Descriptive Studies-Describe the behavior of individuals or groups-Does not always use measurements or quantifications -Example: Harlow's study of "love" in infant monkeys -Correlational Studies -Measure variables that are not manipulated by the researcher and look for relationships -Example: job satisfaction and performance relationship is correlation; -1 to 1-A correlation does not mean causality -Relationships can be more complex-Interaction: relationships between two variables depends on a third variable -Experiments -An independent variable is manipulated by a researcher-A dependent variable is then measured -Test hypotheses about cause and effectInferential Statistics-Assists in concluding if two groups are different -The question of statistical significance-If the P-value is < 5% then it is considered statistically significant-Gives the probability of the difference occurring by chance; between 1% to 100% -Increase statistical significance by:-Increase the size of the effect-Increase number of subjects-Decrease variability within each groupExperiments-Example Hypothesis- "Alcohol impairs driving ability"-Independent variable: experimental group- alcohol, control group- placebo-Dependent variable: number of collisions, lane keeping, etc.-Research setting: laboratory- driving stimulator -Other Independent variables- cell phone talking, texting, age, fog, glare, etc.-Laboratory vs. Field test- real world versus lab setting-Setting depends on experiment and results can vary due to setting-In the lab you can control things much more carefully: less variability Three Dimensions of Research Strategies1. Research Designs -Descriptive studies-Correlations studies-Experiments 2. Research Settings -Laboratory studies = more control-Field studies = confounds more likely and more generalizable3. Data-Collection

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Clemson PSYCH 201 - Methods of Psychology

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