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Study Guide Bio110 Exam 1 CHAPTER 1 Why This Chapter Matters 1 We are living in the golden age of biology Biological discoveries revolutionize medicine change agriculture and impact human culture 2 Life is united not by a single trait but by a common set of characteristics Appreciating what it means to be living is as complex as life itself 3 Life exists at many levels of biological organization Understanding the interrelatedness of these levels provides insight into the mechanisms of living systems 4 The diversity of life is nested into groups that are united and interrelated by their shared evolutionary histories 5 Science is a way of knowing and exploring our natural world Scientists use a combination of discovery science and hypothesis driven science as these are the two main forms of inquiry Understanding how science is done reveals the power and limits of this form of knowledge Scope of Life 1 List and give an example of each level of biological organization starting with an ecosystem and ending with atoms 2 Describe the two main dynamic processes in an ecosystem 3 Compare the structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 4 Distinguish between the three domains and four eukaryotic kingdoms of life Evolution Biology s Unifying Theme 5 Compare artificial and natural selection noting similarities and differences The Process of Science 6 Distinguish science from other styles of inquiry Evolution in 0ur Everyday Lives 7 Explain how changes in the effectiveness of antibiotics illustrate natural selection Key T e r m s biology case study controlled experiment ecosystem hypothesis natural selection scientific method theory CHAPTER 2 Chemistry Why This Chapter Matters 1 Many important biological questions can be reduced to aspects of chemistry 2 Living organisms are at their most basic level chemical systems 3 Understanding the chemical level of biology requires a basic understanding of chemistry 4 Water s unique life supporting properties can be traced to the structure and interactions of its molecules Basic Chemistry 1 Distinguish between matter chemical elements and compounds Give examples of each 1 Study Guide Bio110 Exam 1 2 Describe the relative size location and electrical charge of protons neutrons and electrons within an atom Explain how the atomic number and mass number are determined 3 Define an isotope 4 Explain how the location of electrons determines the chemical properties of an atom 5 Distinguish between ionic covalent and hydrogen chemical bonds 6 Describe the structure of water and explain how its shape makes water a polar molecule Water and Life 7 Describe the four life supporting properties of water Describe an example of how each property affects some form of life 8 Distinguish between the chemical properties of acids bases and neutral solutions Explain how buffers stabilize the pH of acidic and basic solutions Key Terms acid aqueous solution atom atomic number base buffer chemical bond chemical reaction cohesion compound covalent bond electron element heat hydrogen bond ion ionic bond isotope mass mass number matter molecule neutron nucleus pH scale polar molecule product proton radioactive isotope reactant solute solution solvent temperature trace element 2 Study Guide Bio110 Exam 1 Word Roots aqua water aqueous a type of solution in which water is the solvent co together valent strength covalent bond an attraction between atoms that share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons iso equal isotope an element having the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons neutr neither neutron a subatomic particle with a neutral electrical charge Chapter 3 Molecules of LIFE Why this Chapter Matters 1 Biological molecules are the building blocks of cells the fundamental units of life 2 Knowing the structures properties and roles of the four major classes of organic molecules carbohydrates lipids proteins and nucleic acids is essential to understanding the characteristics of life 3 Carbohydrates proteins and lipids are vital components of our diets and the diets of most organisms 4 Regional differences in lactose intolerance illustrate a medically significant aspect of human evolution Got Lactose 1 Describe the causes and consequences of lactose intolerance Explain why lactose intolerance has evolved differently in humans spread throughout the world Organic compounds 2 Describe the special bonding properties of carbon that allow it to form an endless variety of organic molecules 3 Compare a dehydration reaction to hydrolysis the making and breaking of polymers Large Biomolecules 4 Compare the structures and roles of monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides in living organisms Give examples of each 5 Compare the structure and properties of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids 6 Distinguish between steroids and anabolic steroids and explain how the use of anabolic steroids can be dangerous to a person s health 7 Describe the structure of proteins Distinguish between the primary structure and the final three dimensional shape 8 Describe and compare the structures of DNA and RNA Key Terms amino acid atherosclerosis carbohydrates cellulose dehydration reaction denaturation disaccharides DNA double helix fat functional groups gene glycogen hydrocarbons 3 Study Guide Bio110 Exam 1 hydrogenation hydrolysis hydrophilic hydrophobic isomers lipids macromolecules monomers monosaccharides nucleic acids nucleotides organic compounds peptide bond polymers polypeptide polysaccharides primary structure protein RNA saturated starch steroids sugar phosphate backbone trans fat triglyceride unsaturated Word Roots di two sacchar sugar disaccharide two monosaccharides joined together glyco sweet gen producing glycogen a polysaccharide sugar used to store energy hydro water lyse break hydrolysis breaking chemical bonds by adding water iso equal meros part isomer molecules with similar molecular formulas but different structures macro big macromolecules a giant molecule in living organisms mono single monosaccharide simplest type of sugar philic loving hydrophilic water loving property of a molecule phobos fearing hydrophobic water repelling property of a molecule poly many polymer a chain made from smaller organic molecules sclero hard atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries tri three triglyceride a glycerol molecule joined with three fatty acid molecules Chapter 4 Cells 1 Cells are the smallest entity that exhibits all the characteristics of life 2

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Cal Poly Pomona BIO 110 - CHAPTER 1 Why This Chapter Matters

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