LSU KIN 2504 - Chapter 3: Conditioning your Cardiorespiratory System

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Chapter 3: Conditioning yourCardiorespiratory SystemThe Heart1. Respiration : exchange of gasin the lungs/ blood tissue2. Systemic Circulation : freshlyoxygenated blood moves fromheart to aorta to go out tobody tissues3. Pulmonary Circulation :deoxygenated moves fromheart to pulmonary artery togo to the lungs4. Heart cycle (heartbeat, pulse)consists of 2 phasea. Systole : when the ventricles contract and blood is pumped out of the heart (either through aorta or pulmonary artery)b. Diastole : ventricles relax & fill up with blood so when the muscle contracts, blood can be sent out5. Blood Pressure : pressure being exerted against vessel walls during heart cyclea. systolic number - top number is when heart is contractingb. diastolic number - bottom number is when ventricles are relaxed and refilling good indicator for potential stroke riskc. measured in mm/HG (millimeters/ mercury)d. blood pressure is affected by how much you exercisee. recommended norm is 115/75 (recently revised from 120/180)f. hypertension : high blood pressure only 1 number needs to be consistently elevated (ex: 140/70) hypertension stage one if systolic is at 140 or if diastolic is at 90Metabolic Systems Deliver Essential Energy- ATP (adenosine triphosphate) : a cellular form of energy that must be constantly regenerated from energy stored in your body and from the foods you eat- Immediate Energy System o ATP is stored in muscle cells that only lasts for a short period of time (few seconds)o Creatine phosphate : stored in muscle cells rid phosphate molecule to continuously make ATPo Lasts for no more than 30 sec of physical activity- Nonoxidative (Anaerobic) Energy System o breaks down glucose stored throughout different parts of body and converts it to ATPo Only lasts for about 3 min- Oxidative (Aerobic) Energy System o produces energy slowly at the same time nonoxidative system is workingo focused in the mitochondria of the muscle cellso produces more ATP than any other systemo fuels any activity after the 3 min of nonoxidative stops workingAll systems are interconnected!!!The Cardiorespiratory System at Rest and During ExerciseResting condition- Homeostasis - stable, constant internal environment- Response to Exerciseo Cardiac Output - volume of blood ejected from the heart within one minuteo Blood flow and heart rate increase so body can get back to homeostasisHow Aerobic Training Conditions the Cardiorespiratory System- Increases oxygen delivery to muscles to help with performanceo Improves the transfer and use of oxygen by: increasing blood levels of hemoglobin (oxygen carrying component in red blood cells) increasing plasma volume, which increases blood volume to carry more oxygen and nutrients increase in the number of capillaries in the muscles that we train number of mitochondria increases so you can do more oxidative reproduction of ATP- Improves the body’s ability to use energy efficiently- Improves ability to store more glycogen (glucose) in muscle cellso More mitochondria helps how efficiently we break down stored fat for energy useo Fat is most concentrated source of energyTraining activities[Table 4.1]Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Fitness- Decreases risk of disease, includingthose related to metabolic syndrome(obesity-related risk factors)- Helps control body weight andcomposition- Improves self-esteem, mood, andfeelings of well-being (releasesendorphins)- Improves immune function o stimulate the production of bcells and t cells to help fightoff infectiono lower stress levels- Improves long-term quality of life o independent and free of disease for elderly peopleo good for those who are sick with cancer, etc too to help them gain strengthAssessing Your Cardiorespiratory Fitness- Monitor resting heart rateo as you exercise over time, your resting heart rate will lower and your cardiorespiratory health is increasing- Understand maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)o body’s ability to utilize oxygen during exerciseo measured directly- wear a gas type mask during activityo measure indirectlyo with a regular training program, you should see a 15-20% increase- Test submaximal heart rate responseso Using a treadmill or stationary bike to measure heart rate and how it increases during exerciseo Not maximal efforto Stay in moderate range of physical activity- Tests for cardiorespiratory fitness in the field and classroomo 3-min step test o Look at how well your heart rate recoverso Take heart rate before and after starting You want to recover quickly to return within 10 beats of normal heart rate Determines how fit we areo One-mile walking test See how fast you can walk the mile use a formula a to figure out VO2 maxo 1.5 mile running testo 12 min walk/run (see how much distance you cover)Creating Your Own Cardiorespiratory Program- Set appropriate cardiorespiratory fitness goals.o SMART goals: specific, measurable, action-oriented, realistic, time-oriented Learn about cardiorespiratory training options- Classes (spin, Zumba, step, etc)- Indoor workouts- Outdoor workouts- Differing formatso Continuous training - perform the same rhythmic activity for at least 20 min or moreo Interval training - alternate periods of intense exercise with periods of lowintensive activities or even a rest period (ex: running sprints then walking)o Circuit training - moving from location to location and training on a certainamount of time or a certain number of repetitions on each stationo Apply FITT Principles Frequency - recommended for you to do cardiorespiratory activities 3-5 times a week (ACSM guidelines) Intensity- Assess your rate of perceived exertion (RPE).o Like to see between a 12 and a 16 (moderate to vigorous activity)o 64% to 90%o Corresponds with heart rateo Subjectiveo how hard you would rate your exertion in a specific activityo determined by checking heart rateo RPE scale from 6 to 20o used especially in cardiac rehab centers- Determine your target heart rate zones (heart rate reserve)o Measure your heart rate reserve (HRR). Determines intensity of cardiovascular endurance Determine max heart rate (HRmax= 220-age) Determine resting heart rate (norm is between 60 and 80 but varies between individuals) Find the reserve (max – resting = 202-80=122 HRR)- During cardiorespiratory activities, you need to be within 40 to 85% of heart rate reserve (HRR)- 122 x 0.40= 52ish; 130 x 0.85= 110ish Add resting back to

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LSU KIN 2504 - Chapter 3: Conditioning your Cardiorespiratory System

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