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Nutrition3/20/2014SulfateNeed from coIron- Prevention of anemia- Oxygen delivery and aerobic metabolism- The amount of iron absorbed in a typical diet is quite low- Oxidative enzyme activity- Absorption can be influenced by the body’s need- Anemiao Poor hemoglobin productiono Decreased RBC formationo Increased blood losso Deficiency of iron B6 B12, folateHeme Iron vs Non Heme IronHeme Iron-found only in meats fish and poultry-can cross small intestine wall more readily than non heme formColon cancer from too muchElemental Iron-from plant and animal source-Absorption enhanced by vitamin c as well as presence of meat, fish, or poultryIron RequirementsHigher for woman than for menMale DRI- 8mg/dayVegetarians 14 mg/dayWomen > 50 DRI 8 mg/dayWomen 19-50 Multiply DRI 18Vegetarians times 1.8 (need a supplement?)Athletes 15 to 18 mg/dayPregnancy DRI 27 mg/dayPrenatal vitamins often contain DRIGood sources of ironMeatFishPoultryShellfish espically oystersBeansEnriched cerealsBeansGreen leafy vegiesEgg yolkDried fruit- take out water volumeSymptoms of Iron Deficiency AnemiaExhaustionPalenessShirt attention spanIrritabilitySusceptibility to infectionRapid heart rateIn infants and children deficiency anemia may cause irreversible mental retardation. Iron toxicityToxic in too much quantitiesHemochromatosisGenetic disorderStore high amounts of ironSymptoms of iron toxicityInjectionsJoin painSkin pigmentation due to iron depositsDiabetesBlood in the stoolShockSymptoms of iron overloadAbdominal painFatigueMental depressionLong term can lead to liver damageFunctions of Copper- Component of several enzymes - if deficient in iron can be deficient in copper- component in enzymes involved in iron metabolism- assist in energy production- links the proteins collagen and elastin together in connective tissue- plays a role in blood clotting and maintain ZincFunctions of zinc include- 200 difference enzymes- Alcohol metabolism- Hemoglobin synthesis- Antioxidant enzyme function helps with healing when sick- Blood pressure regulation DNA replication- Protein synthesis, growth, and development- Wound healing- Immunes function- Development of sexual organs and bone growth- Insulin release and function- Gene regulationDaily needs of ZincFemales 8 mgdMales 11 mgdAthletes 11 to 15 mg.dayMost adults are meeting their daily needs- Vegeratians have higher needs due to more significant consumption of phytates in plant foods, reducing absorption of zinc in the intestinal tractUpper limit 40 mgd can be too healthySources of ZincMeats poulty Whole grainsLegumesSeleniumAntioxidant defense- Thyroid hormoneFood Sources- Seafood is an excellent source of selenium- Fish (epically tuna)- Meats- Eggs- Brazil Nuts- Be careful- Wheat-based cereal- only if grown in selenium tich soils- Sunflower seedsImportant for men helps to prevent prostate cancer but can have too muchIodine deficiency leads to goiter- enlarged thyroid glandFood sources of iodine- sea food, tuna, egg turkey breast, beans, shellfish, cod fish, grouperChromiumFunction- Glucose uptake- Chromium picolinate doesn’t seem to influence body composition in humansFood sources- Brewers yeast- Mushrooms- Liver- Nuts- Whole grains- CheeseDRIMales 25 mcg/dayFemales 25 mcg/dayAthletes 30 to 35 mcg/dayChapter 11 WaterWhy is water so important?Water is the most abundant substance in the bodyAverage healthy adult is 45 to 75% water depending onAgePercent of water declines with ageBody compositionMuscle ~65% waterFat is 10 to 40% waterGenderYou can survive for weeks without food but you need water it is an essential nutrientWater is a polar molecule- Excellent solvent in the body- Neutral charge- Essential in maintain acid base balanceFunctions of water in the body- Commonly known as a universal solvent- Polarity allows it to attract charged particles into solutions and dissolve a variety of other polar substanceso Important to digestionHelps transport dissolved nutrients and other substances through the bodyBlood is composed of water and red blood cellsWater allows blood to transport oxygen nutrient and hormones to the cellsLubricates joints sensitive eye tissues, mouth and intestinal tractProvides a protective cushion bathing certain organs with fluidDuring pregnancy the fetus is surrounded by watery amniotic fluidProvides a structural component to cellsWater is essential for most chemical reactions in the bodyDuring digestion water hydrolyzes the bonds holding togetherCarbohydrate moleculesProtein moleculesFat molWhen smaller molecules …Maintaining water balanceFluid homeostasisIs necessary for normal reactions within the cellsIs maintained by adaptation to changes in water intake and water lossWater balanceAmount consumed=amount secretedWe always sweat all the timeSources of Body waterLargest source comes from beveragesFood is an additional sourceExcept for fats, all food contains some waterMetabolic water- water generated during metabolismDaily intake of 2550 ml (about 2 quarts)Water excretionloss through sweatVaries based on--Environmental factorsTemperatureHumidityWindSun’s intensityClothingAmount of physical activityWater Balance between fluid compartmentsBody fluid is locatedIntracellular- within the cellsExtra cellular- outside the cellsIntravascularInterstitialAll influenced by dehydration!Electrolytes Participates in Fluid BalanceElectrolytesMinerals with electrically charged ionso Potassiumo Phosphateo Magnesiumo Calciumo Chlorideo SodiumHelp maintain water balance between compartmentsSodium has greatest effectElectrolytes participate in fluid balanceOsmosiso Strongest factor influencing water balance between compartmentso Water moves from a diluted concentration to a more concentrated areao Osmolality of a solutions indicates a total concentration Sodium-potassium pumpo Sodium and potassium play a key role in water concentration inside and outside of the cellso Healthy cells Low concentration of sodium ions High levels of potassium inside the cellsWater is attracted to sodium and loves toward it Transports three Na+ ions out of cell in exchange for two k+ ions (work in opposition)o Keep the cell from swelling and burstingoHow to water and sodium affect blood pressure?-if the bode retains too much fluid, blood volume increases and blood pressure will likely rise-kidneys help regulate blood volume and electrolyte balance through tightly controlled hormone signals Three hormones and one enzyme work together to orchestrate the retention of water and

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BU HWS 332 - Nutrition

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