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ANTH222 Midterm Study GuideEcological and Evolutionary AnthropologyAnthropology: Holistic study of humankind, and their closest relatives, through space and time5 Field Approach- Cultural Anthropology studies societies/cultures- Archaeology studies remains to understand how people lived- Linguistics studies language and how they evolve/how we share our cultures/ slang - Biological/ Physical study of human evolution (includes primatology, medical, forensics, etc.)- Applied Anthropology applies theories of all fields (“anthropology in action”)Ecology: Holistic interactions between organisms (between/within species) and between organisms and their surrounding environments (merges biology and environmental science)Biotic and Abiotic (living/ nonliving)- components processes and interactionsEvolutionary Biology: Study of changes to form and function through time (Charles Darwin father of Evolutionary Biology). Explain how we got to where we are; what produced the diversity on earth; origin of new speciesEcological and Evolutionary Anthropology: Study of relationships between hominids, and non hominids, primates and their biophysical environments to understand changed in their physiology and behavior through space and timeTrajectory of Systems Thinking: Mechanical Approach  Ecosystems Approach  Complexity/Complex Adaptive Systems ApproachMechanical Systems Approach (Reductionist)- Focuses on individual parts (assumes the world is predictable)  the whole is no more than the sum of its parts Ecosystems Approach- The whole is greater than the sum of its parts (holisticpoint of view). Everything is interconnected Assumes:1. Ecosystem is basic unit of nature, which is all interconnected 2. Biodiversity increases stability3. Change is bad (strive for homeostasis)Energy Flows OnlyComplexity/Complex Adaptive Systems Approach- The whole is greater than the sum of its parts, but change is accepted/expected/may not be bad/non-linear Adaptation and adaptive capacity is importantEnergy and Information FlowsCannot separate Biology and CultureA Complex Bio Cultural Approach – interrelationships between Genes/Environment/cultureCulture:- As an adaptation- Shapes political economy- Shapes human brain and life history (long parental investment)- Influences behavior and how we view the worldScience- A process and a tool that we use to understand; what we can knowGoal- Advance knowledge of the natural world by describing and explaining the universe as accurately and fully as possibleCharacteristics- Testable (can for hypotheses/testable statements)- Deals exclusively with the natural world - Parsimonious o Occam’s Razor- when faced with two possible explanations, thesimpler of the two is the one most likely to be true- Probabilistic (statistics/model  certitude) - Logical Rigor – Repeated testing to make sure/ Self correcting approachThe Scientific Method- Observation  Questioning  Hypothesis Prediction  Experiment  Result  RepeatHypothesis vs.Theory vs.Scientific LawApplies to Single orSmall Number ofeventsApplies to All EventsDescribes WhatHappensObservation Law(Ex. Gravity)Explains Why ThingsHappenHypothesis TheoryScience is a Culture1. Communal- The work of scientists is shared among scientists and with the public (allows for the self correcting method)2. Universal- Happens in all countries and transcends culture (ex. Math)3. Disinterestedness- Attempt at objectiveness/ science is for the public Organized Skepticism- Conservative in accepting theories/ burden of proof is on the person who makes a claimReading the Genetic CodeDNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)- Structure o Phosphates and Sugars make up the sides of the laddero Nitrogen makes up the rungso Adenine (A)o Thymine (T)o Guanine (G) o Cytosine (C)o Uracil (U)- Function- Locationo Nucleus- contains entire genome  Instructions for building and maintaining you Homoplasmic o Mitochondria- DNA in this organelle inherited through matrilineal lineonly (mtDNA) Heteroplasmic  37 genes - Composition-Human Growth and Development- Structural- Instructions for producing body structures - Regulatory- Turn other genes on and off o Hox Genes- Determine forma and arrangement of tissues and organs (special regulatory genes)Genetics and EvolutionGene- Basic unit of inheritanceAllele- One or more alternative forms of a geneChromosome- A strand of DNA that has multiple genes (not an indication of intelligence)Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) – Inheritance controlled by discrete particlesBasic Principles of Mendelian Genetic Inheritance 1. Law of Segregation- receive 1 allele from each parent2. Law of Independent Assortment- Each pair of alleles separates independently from every other when sperm or eggs (gametes) are formed 3. Law of Dominance- The allele that gets expressed is the dominant type Genotype (the letters)- allele combinationPhenotype (the expression) - Expression of the allele combination Homozygus DominantHeterozygus 10 contradictions A human 1. Chromosome Theorya. Genes are on the Chromosomesb. Mitosis- how you body grows and heals c. Meiosis- produces gametic cells i. My toe grows by mitosis, I make sex cells with meiosis 2. Linkagea. Genes close together on chromosomes tend to be inherited 3. Crossing-Overa. Homologous chromosomes line up to separate b. Exchange occurs before separation c. Gametes are produced after exchange and separation4. Polygenic Inheritancea. Gene Complexity- common to find a combination of polygeny i. Skin Colorii. Cystic Fibrosis5. Environmental Influences a. Nutrition and environmental factors causes variations i. Famine6. Unit Charactersa. Not every identifiable trait or feature has a genei. Personality traitsii. Anatomical features 7. Properties of Heterozygotes a. Blended inheritance- a mixing b. Incomplete/Partial dominancec. Co-Dominance- blood types 8. Imprinting a. Certain genes expressed (or not) in a parent-of-origin specific manneri. Angelman or Prader-Willi 9. Exttra-nuclear Inheritancea. mtDNA used to trace genetic historyNondisjunction- when the chromosomes do not split correctly Examples- Turner’s Syndrome/ Monosomy X Down’s Syndrome/Trisomy 21Natural History and the Origins of Evolutionary ThoughtMilestones of Pre-evolutionary Theory Early Milestones Creation (Supernatural Events) Iroquois Jewish-Christian-MuslimEssentialism- Advocated by Plato (428-328 BCE)- Each kind of thing has unchanging core of features - No variation from a true

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UMD ANTH 222 - Midterm Study Guide

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