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ANTH 173 FINAL STUDY GUIDE Concepts from Midterm I II 1 What is evolution who is important for discovering it Inherited change change in genes in a population but acting on phenotypes that are a poor expression of the genotype means that genes that are not expressed can be inherited Changes and current forms explainable by natural events Does not require belief and can be tested by the scientific method the scientific study of the biological aspects of social behavior in observable behaviors Cues what we often observe measure Ex Women wear sluttier clothes when ovulating genetic reason for behavior Evolution and genes what we are 2 Sociobiology animals and humans 3 Proximate function 4 Ultimate function interested in Ex Women wear sluttier clothing when ovulating because they are trying to reproduce and get genes passed on 8 7 Fitness 5 6 Kin selection core of survival of the fittest direct fitness using calls to save kin have enough kin to know your genes will get self sacrificing behavior Protecting others knowing that enough of the genetic contribution to the next generation and is the relative to others Individual selection your genes have been spread throughout family in order to pass off your traits in population Indirect fitness passed on 9 Direct fitness 10 Inclusive fitness carry your genes interferes with own ability would expect primary assistance to be paternal maybe with allomothering assistance 11 Trade off cost if it were too costly to allomother a lot of care needed and make decisions that benefit you directly while protecting kin that one male and one female may mate for life or a breading season own descendent offspring individual selection 12 Monogamy Rare among prosimians Why females cannot afford to be social because of food Male presence care needed to raise offspring or defend territory Groups better in the day against predators Ex Indri red bellied lemur wooly lemur tarsier Co dominant and same body size 13 One male polygyny one male and many females Why usually females benefit from being together in a group because they can defend the food or area Single male because he can exclude from other males Curiously doesn t happen in prosimians 14 Polyandry one female with more than one male Why more than one male necessary to raise offspring female food stressed especially during raising offspring and care from Tamarins and Mamosets 15 Multi male polygyny than others Why can defend the food or area many males with many females one male may mate more usually females benefit from being together in a group because they But group is bigger so too big for one male but can be defended by several Female s benefit having more males to choose among Many diurnal lemurs many female dominant 16 Harems males attack and force females into mating not the females choice Single male harem in some baboons hamadryas and gelada community identity parties in the largest group mix of different 17 Fission fusion competition types Male bonded females scattered but overlapping as food sources vary but o Why females cannot always be together to defend food o One male can guard more if cooperate with relatives o Get separate females with cooperative males o Common in chimpanzee females group to cooperatively defend bigger food sources Female bonded o Why o Males can no longer guard more if cooperate with relatives o Solitary o Pygmy chimpanzee or bonobo number of surviving offspring produced by an individual number of surviving offspring produced by and 18 Reproductive success 19 Lifetime reproductive success individual during its whole lifetime 20 What are the differences between the reproductive cycle and the sexual cycle Reproductive cycle whether or not you have a baby o Ovulation Conception Gestation Birth Lactation 3 5 years o Total of 4 6 years o Lactational amenoria when lactation inhibits ovulation Sexual cycle o Females o Ovulation Menstruation 28 days Ovulation 21 What two processes does sexual selection involve competition within one sex occurs between Intrasexual selection individuals of the same sex fighting among alpha males Intersexual selection spread of that trait in the other sex Could be preferred for no reason mutation for preference or trait shows something about mate quality choosing for better genes friendly males that form friendships courtship displays etc The higher investing sex is choosier usually females mate choice choosing mates for traits will select for Ex Female peacocks choose male with the biggest tail display signals good genes 22 What is Fisher s hypothesis runaway selection or the sexy son High investing sex females select lower investing sex males for mates according to some trait that females prefer Trait may have started as an indicator of male quality or other reasons If female preference is inherited trait will spread until decrease in survivability counter balances sexual attractiveness sexy son 23 What is Handicap hypothesis good gene or Triver s model High investing sex females select lower investing sex males for mates according to some trait that is costly to produce so that the trait shows male quality in surviving and reproduction good genes FINAL Reproduction Just how hard is it 1 How does the position of the infant during birth differ between non human primates and human primates Non human primates the birth canal is mostly a straight tube and the head is small They rotate and its variable but either faces front or back not side and all come out facing towards mothers front so mother can help her baby come out shoulders for the baby bipedal constraints on pelvis for mother the head is big brain bigger so birth earlier fixed Human primates o Given shape of head smallest presentation is top back think of putting on a sweater internal shape of birth canal concave sacrum match to convex frontal and inflexibility of back of skill needs to come out facing away from mother and facing her back 2 Does the rotation of the infant during birth occur with both non human and human primate births Only occurs in non human primates birth 3 What is the shape of the human birth canal The human head is ovoid human birth canal starts widest side to side so baby starts facing to side The exit of the canal is widest back to front so baby must rotate to align 4 What are the costs of reproduction To mother high limited by food When small carrying important body weight marmoset infants get to be three quarters of her body weight Advantages to mother of having

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