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Tutorial 1: Overview, Life and Natural SelectionEvolution- changes in genetic structure of a population- Explains the diversity of lifeAdaptations- traits the help an organism survive in its current environmentNatural Selection- process by which a population becomes better adapted to its environment over time (differential reproduction/fitness)Tutorial 2: Carbon and LifeProperties of Water: polar molecule, high surface tension, specific heat, heat of vaporization, electronegative, cohesion (stick together), adhesion (stick to other surfaces) Covalent bonds hold together hydrogen’s and oxygen, hydrogen bond hold together molecules Ice is less dense than waterMetabolism- the set of chemical reactions that happen in living organisms to maintain lifeAnabolism- combination of molecules- Condensation/ Dehydration Synthesis- releases waterCatabolism- broken down- Hydrolysis (digestion)- addition of water to breakdown polymersMacromolecules1. Carbohydrates (sugars)- Used for energy storage (starch)- Structural support (cellulose)- Plays a role in information storage in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)- Monomer= Monosaccharide’s (simple sugars)- Disaccharides- anabolic reactions (water released)- Polysaccharide- several thousand monomers (starches)o Glycogen- sugar storage in animalso Cellulose-plant cell walls, most abundant polymero Chitin- structural purposes 2. Lipids (fats)- Hydrophobic- Not polymers- Energy storage, protection, insulation (fats)o Saturated fats- no double bondso Unsaturated fats- double bonds - Structure of cell membranes (phospholipids/ cholesterol)o Phospholipids- hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail- Hormones/Steroids (estrogen/testosterone)3. Proteins (amino acids)- Structural support, digestive enzymes, pigment, move muscles, transport oxygen- 20 commonly seen amino acids- Polypeptides- a polymer chain of amino acids4. Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA)- Polymers of nucleotides- RNA- expresses genetic information, ribose, AUGC- DNA- carries genetic information, deoxyribose, ATGCTutorial 3: Antiquity of LifeUniverse= 13.7 billionSolar System= 4.55-4.56 billionEarth= 4.5 billionLife= 3.5 billionPrimitive Earth’s Atmosphere- Anaerobic- No oxygen (oxygen oxidizes substances= removing all theelectrons)- Highly reducing- gained electronsPlate Tectonics- large plates move with respect to eachotherContinental drift- the continents are constantly moving Pangaea- super continent (180 million years ago)- Evidenceo S. American and African continents fit togethero Fossils of unusual plants/animals on coastlines of S. Americanand Africao Fossils of tropical plants in AntarcticaFossilsPrecambrian—Paleozoic—Mesozoic—Cenozoic1. Sedimentary Rock- (best source)- Relative Dating- farther down the older (not accurate age)2. Radiometric Dating- using elements with radioactive isotopes that delay atknown rates (less than 50,000 years)o Half-life3. Dendrochronology- one tree ring= one year (drought= narrower)Tutorial 4: Prokaryotes I – Cellular and Genetic OrganizationProkaryote-o No membrane bound nuclei, smallo Coccus- spherical o Bacillus- rod shapedo Spirillum- helicalo Divide quickly because of their small genome, simple morphologies, andbecause they reproduce via binary fissiono Nucleoid= where DNA (plasmids) are locatedo Gene Transfer1. Transformation- acquire genes from surrounding environment2. Conjugation- attachment to eachother (pilus, must have F Factor, F+)3. Transduction- phages/ viruses that infect bacteriaEukaryote- membrane bound organelles and nucleiThree major domains of life:1. Bacteria o Prokaryoteo Single celled or colonialo Cell walls have peptidoglycano Genes lack introns (non-coding region of gene)o Endospores- thick coated, resistant cells for harsh conditionso Sporulation= formation of endosporeso Good Bacteriao Aid Digestion, Bioremediation, make medicines, nitrogen fixation2. Archaea (extremophiles)- o Prokaryoteo Single celled or colonialo Cell walls lack peptidoglycano Some genes have introns3. Eukaryao Eukaryoteso Divide via mitosis/meiosiso Complex cellso Tublin (vs flagella)Tutorial 5: Prokaryotes II – Structure and FunctionProkaryotes:o Cells are encased in plasma membrane (keeps salt and liquids balanced)o Cell walls contain peptidoglycano Capsule- additional layer outside of the cell wallGram Stain- Gram + : a lot of peptidoglycan, absorb gram stain, purple stain- Gram - : less peptidoglycan, do not absorb gram stain, more complex cellwalls, pink staino Ex) Yersinia- caused the plagueMovement- Biofilm- slime- Spiochetes (helical)- rotate like a corkscrew- Flagella (clockwise= random, counterclockwise=directional)Taxis- Phototaxis- light- Geotaxis- gravity- Chemotaxis- chemicals- Either + or – (move towards or away from)Nutritional Modes- Chemo/Photo- energy comes from a high energy molecule or from light- Auto/ Hetero- carbon comes from CO2 or more complex form for carbon- Ex) ChemoheterotrophCarbon Sources- Sugars (monosaccharide’s/polysaccharides) or starches- Carbon dioxide (aka Carbon Fixers)- Feed on oil (clean up spills)- TNT and PCBs (make non-toxic byproducts)o Bioremediation- removal of toxins from the environmentTutorial 6: Prokaryotes III – Evolution and Early MetabolismSymbiosis1. Mutualism- both benefit- Ex) Cellulose digestion 2. Parasitism- one benefits at expense of the other- Ex) plague and cholera3. Commensalism- neither are benefited or harmed- Ex) bacteria on skinOpportunistic Infection- normally commensalistic bacteria becomes pathogenicMicrobiome- all the bacteria living in ones bodySabrobes- organisms that live on dead and decaying matterNitrogen Fixers- Legumes- house NF bacteria- Cyanobacteria- capable in NF o Ex) blue/green algaeTutorial 7: Subcellular Architecture of the Eukaryotic CellOrganelles- separated from the rest of the cell by a phospholipid bilayerNucleus- Stores main genetic material- Site of all gene expression- Most visible organelle- Surrounded by nuclear envelope, nucleolus housed inside (contains genesthat encode and transcribe rRNA)The Endomembrane System- Protein Production and modification- Rough ERo Houses ribosomes (bound)o Make proteins for export outside of cell- Smooth ERo No ribosomeso Makes lipidso Detoxification of toxins- Golgi Apparatuso Modifies proteins- adds sugarso Proteins move from rough ER to Golgio Cis face= receiving end and trans face= exit1. Free ribosomes making a protein (SRP recognizes “special” sequence)2. SRP attaches to signal sequence 3. Growing

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PSU BIOL 110 - Lecture notes

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