UO J 350 - Final Exam Study Guide

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Primary: original research (surveys, interviews)Secondary: research you didn’t conduct yourself, already exists (online databases)Quantitative: research involving statistics and data (numbers)Qualitative: research involving text (story or words)3 key things you need when researching:OrganizationSituationAudienceGoalObjectiveStrategiesTacticsWHAT constitutes communication and how people receive messagesHOW people process information and change their perceptionsWHICH kinds of media and communication tools are most appropriate for the messageDefine the specific ethical issue/conflictIdentify internal/external factors (legal, political, social, economical) that may influence the decisionIdentify key valuesIdentify the parties who will be affected by the decision and define the public relations practitioner’s obligation to eachSelect ethical principles to guide the decision making process based on an opinion poll of key stakeholdersEthical Decisions Are Based On:Moral choicesNorms of societyLegal principlesOrganization valuesProfessional valuesDiversity in PR: Production, Diversity, Content, ConsumptionLGBTQ: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and QueerNot all are treated by professional communicatorsExample: Hilton launched “Stay Hilton. Go Out”Overview of your storyFact sheets with statistical informationMake charts comparing company to competitorsKey messages for the media (talk about client)Linking yourself to broad issues that effect a lot of peopleSocial Media: activities that integrate technology and social interactionMakenna JohnsonJ350 Final Exam Study GuideChapter 1:Lectures: What is PR?Key Topics:- Defining PRo PR: a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.o It is hard to define because many things funnel into PR and each are a part of it. Examples: Special Events, Research, Strategic Planning, Media Relations, Development/Fundraisingo PR involves Digital, Strategy, Media, Word of Mouth, Research, Partnerships, Crisis Management, Events, Branding, CSR etc.- Stereotypeso The Party Plannero Lobbyist Sleaze Ballo Press Secretaryo Image Consultant (showing why client has a negative image and how can change it)Chapter 3:Lectures: History of PRKey Topics:- Important figures & their contributions to modern PRo Samuel Adams : Boston Massacre- twist and emphasis to rally emotion and the cause in order to get publicity Used symbols (liberty tree) which are easily identifiable and link w/emotiono Amos Kendall : 1st Press Secretary- served communication roll between Administration and the Publico PT Barnum : Master of “Press Agentry”- Any publicity is good publicity, doinganything for media attention, was a freak show circus guyo Ivy Ledbetter Lee : 1st to specialize in PR/credited for 1st Press Release- Worked with George Parker and formed nation’s 3rd publicity agency. Handled Anthracite Mines and convinced the owner to open up about the organization which set up a principle on how to communicate in PR ;;;; Created principles/philosophy: If a company had something that they couldn’t talk about, they shouldn’t do it #1 policy: tell the truth A business/industry should align with the public interest Carrying out programs only with active support of management Maintaining open communication with the media Humanize the business and use PR to bring it down to the community levelo Edward Bernays : Influential for modern course of campaign- Sigmund Freud’s Nephew, believed that audiences could be persuaded if messagessupported their values and interests, called himself a PR representative Famous campaigns Freedom Torches (women smoking in public) Light’s Golden Jubilee “Bacon” Campaign where docs endorsed a “healthy breakfast” but never mentioned that bacon was the way to achieve it.  Campaigns were very manipulative with use of 3rd party Authoritative Endorsement (“¾ doctors agree”) Irrelevant objects could be linked with emotion and become super iconso Doris Fleischman (wife of Bernays): PR exec and feminist activist- created campaigns with Bernays Member of the Lucy Stone League- encouraged women to keep their maiden names 1st married woman to be issued a U.S. passport in her maiden nameo Arthur Page: Vice Prez at AT&T- 1st to say “insisted on PR as a management function” 6 Principles of PR Tell Truth Prove with Action (align what you are saying with what you are doing) Listen to customer Manage for Tomorrow (figure out what’s coming) Conduct PR as if whole company depends on it Remain Calm, Patient, and Good-Humoredo Harold Burnson: 1953 Founded Burson-Marstellar, top 5 around the world Key Policies to Success: Hiring a cadre of dedicated employees who worked for the firmfor many years ;Developing a family atmosphere with his team ;Creating a corporate culture proactively ;Posting as the firm leader- Milestoneso Rossetta Stone: same thing written in 3 languages o Boston Tea Party: “Taxation without Representation,” boycott of British Teain colonies, staged public event that created a “splash” to get attentiono Four Models of PR: (1980-90’s) Press Agentry: one-way communication, focused on “hype” Public Information: one-way Organization to Stakeholder, intent to inform or govern people (PIO-Public Information Officer/Community Relations Manager) Two-way Asymmetrical: creating campaigns from research, getting info in and creating better campaigns out Two-way Symmetrical: mutual understanding, win-win situation with 2 groupsSupplemental: PR Theory:Reading: Theory chapter on BlackboardLectures: PR Theory 1 & 2Key Topics:System Theory:- Organizations and their Environments are interdependent (can’t exist without each other)Open : open to adjusting and compromise based on components of the environment (change)- Used PR to get feedback on their relationships with other actors in the system (2 Way Communication Model)o Closed : reliant on the status quo and on the feedback (no change) ;Don’t seek any information, they depend on history or the preference of decision makerso Stakeholders : groups in the system impacted by decisionso 4 “Boundary Spanners” : understands and communicates messages between the organization and the stakeholders (employees vs. managers)o Example: Ford Moto Company.


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