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simple dominance (Medels experiments)- cross red and white and get either or, NOT pinknon-Mendelian inheritance (or incomplete dominance): heterozygous genotype exhibits intermediate phenotype, like pink -ex: presence of one dominant allele can sometimes just not provide enough pigment to get it all the way up to red so its pinkblood types:-multiple allele system-A and B code for two versions of enzyme-O allele is mutated and does not code for a functional protein-A and B are codominant: if the individual has both A and B alleles, he will be of AB blood group-O is recessive so only the homozygous recessive individuals will have an O phenotype- +/- refers to presence or absence of a membrane glycoprotein called Rh -single dominance patternsickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait: -hemoglobin is defective, giving red blood cells a sickled appearance-a change in one amino acid in structure of hemoglobin makes it defective-heterozygotes will present both types of hemoglobin: sickle cell trait polygenic inheritance: some traits determined by multiple genes -ex: skin color determined by at least 3 different genesepistasis: products of two or more genes result in certain phenotype; expression of one gene masks or changes expected phenotype of one or more other genes -ex: labs B= black, b= chocolate… yellow labs created through epistasis where another gene is in play (E/e)pleiotropy: single genes that have numerous different effects, rather than just two -ex: fibrillin-1, which codes for a connective tissue protein… Marfan syndromemultifactorial characteristics: characteristics that are influenced by environmental as well as genetic factorsnorm of reaction: range of phenotypic possibilities-human genetic disorders following Mendelian pattern are least common -most are recessive, so heterozygotes are carriersautosomal: chromosomes that are not sex determining-sex linked v. autosomal disorderssex chromosomes:-X and Y-X is large and carries many genes unrelated to sex-Y smaller and carries only genes containing instructions for "maleness" (signals that instruct fetal gonads to develop as testes)-chromosome 1 is biggest and 22 is smallestaneuploidy: condition of having too many or too few chromosomes, which results from errors in meiosispedigrees: maps that can be used to trace genetic traits through generations of individuals-males are squares-females circles-mated individuals connected by horizontal, children connected by vertical branches-expressing genetic trait are shaded-used to determine if a trait being studied is dominant, recessive, or X-linkedHGPS (progeria):-one case per 8 million live births-autosomal dominant disorder-accelerated aging-caused in gene coding for lamina A, protein involved in chromosome organization-die in teens from stroke or heart attack-not inherited but only appears as a random


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UA RNR 170D - Blood Types

Course: Rnr 170d-
Pages: 2
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