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Mosaics Midterm Essays Gilgamesh Phases of the journey Impetuous youth: ignores warning/advice in hopeless quest for eternal life Tyrannical ruler/ignores needs of his people/abuses subjects Exhibits destructive nature/focus on own selfish wants/base desires Gilgamesh abandons all responsibility of position for personal ends No respect for gods/goddesses [ignores advice/ideas/conquest from community elders] Final phase of the epic: impact on personal character and his actions as a long Dominant issues The “truth” of the human condition Acceptance of human limitations Gods v. man: consequences of denying gods/goddesses; do humans possess “free will” or are they victims of destroy? Enduring problems of hubris [ego] Duties of king [or government]: state v. individual; importance of city/duty of citizens Divine right to rule [government v. religion] Good v. Evil: conflict with main character, “hero” who is single-minded in pursuits – excessive in actions Different images of power and control Problem of morality: how does it change? Who defines morality within a culture? Who organizes cultural belief systems? Explain concepts of wilderness v. civilization Principle themes Epic about the fear of death: examination of human longing for eternal life Story of a man’s path to wisdom: successes and failures/human condition Debate on proper duties of kingship: king should or shouldn’t do  Man’s responsibility to his family Conflicts of nature or nurture in civilization Rewards of friendship Immorality of fame and how to achieve it with grace  Las Casas  Christian Spaniards inhabit islands of the Indies; Spaniards and Germans killed natives, taking everything they had European motivations: gold, wealth, social standing Social/religious beliefs Different concepts of “civilization” Political structures: government/laws “Redesigning”: restructure of indigenous people Perceptions of wealth/power: dominant in conflicts that arose between Europeans and Native populations Proclamation made by the Spanish [“requirements”] to the native American people *convert to christianity or be attacked* Las Casas called for egalitarian society based on equality: create a fair society with “equal rights” to economic structures, political structures, and religious freedom Dominant elements Religion & royalty [government]: idea of divine right to rule- Roman catholic: Spain Reason  Asia: establish lucrative trade route – GOLD/economics Environment: introduced to gold throughout; fertile farming ground Colonization & imperialism: work, family, foods, living conditions- Taken over by force [military]; technology – armor, spears, pikes, horses Class, race, new laws [las casas – recognition of American “native rights”] Cultural components Religion- Strong Christian beliefs- Cruel tyrannical warfare- Christians tried to eradicate Indian religion- Natives originally thought Spaniards came from heaven until they experienced their harsh treatment Economics- Strived for gold Government/law/politics- Unjust tyranny: no freedom for Indians- 1512: Laws of Burgos – code to govern conduct of settlers - Constituted by kingdoms and peoples Military - Guerilla warfare- Indians fight back Family- Indian families torn apart, attacked, killed  The Journey of Lewis & Clark Military/scientific expedition, sent out by the government – looking for trade route to Asia [like Spaniards] President Johnson: 1803, congressional funding for scientific military mission Geography graphing; collect plants and animals; fur trade; search locations for military ports Assigned military positions [45 skilled men for expedition]: class determined by military rank Captains, sergeants, and privates kept journals Language [translation], food, transportation, clothing Prepped by coming to Philly for scientific training at UPenn, tutored on botany, medicine, survival… Established law and punishment; experienced death, illness, and disease Dress and fashion could determine class Interracial interaction between explorers and natives Civilization and Its Discontents Id: develops as birth. Natural instincts. All of our repressed desires belong to the id Ego: develops from the id in response to reality Superego: develops from incorporation of moral standards and prohibitions from the parents, particularly the father Efforts to know ourselves; deny fundamental instincts; & form deadly antagonisms against our neighbors and ourselves On the eve of the collapse of civil disorder of Germany and Austria, Freud anticipates bloodbath brought on by racism and a nationalism fed by psychic disorders Asks readers to consider whether needs of societies and individuals are compatible and whether the cost of civilization is out permanent personal unhappiness Freud says we create civilization because nature is threatening to us. Civilization is built upon man’s renunciation of nature. Believed that our personal instincts are aggressive and self-serving so we must squelch these in order to maintain civilization. Our achievements are accomplished through social sublimation [we control our own instincts in order to produce/achieve], but man’s natural instinct is stronger than any plan to do good.  Freud says we would naturally prefer to indulge our pleasures or aggressive nature. Social rules must control us so we produce. Religion becomes the tool of the superego, dictating morals and socially acceptable behavior. Turn to a God belief as a mode of controlling the passions within ourselves. Religion is a comfort like the mother and sternness of the father. Incorporate both. Religion becomes a part of societal superego in civilization We create god because were lonely and confused and cannot make sense of life without God Communities need outside groups to relieve frustration  Ultimate goal to be happy. Many times we choose social norms of what we want. Substance abuse claim. We seek artificial stimulants and depressants for pleasure, avoid disturbing feelings. Social relations are defined by the community and the will to dominate the individual interests. Often the claim for happiness surrounds the need for individual liberty against the power of the group. Life is a struggle between the id,


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TEMPLE IH 0851 - Mosaics Midterm Essays

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