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EXAM #1UNIT ONE- Nile Valley in Egypt  low-lying, rich agricultural regionso Nile River runs north and southo Civilization began here; raised two cropso Farmers had to irrigate and bring water to land for cropso One season when river would overflow and help farmers Used astronomy and mathematics to predict overflowing- Kingdomso Old Kingdom Burials in pyramids (Egypt and Mesopotamia)o Middle Kingdomo New Kingdom- Egypt had pyramids for Kings (Old Kingdom)o Kings controlled all of Egypt  regarded as godso Pyramids used to be covered with white gleaming limestoneo Egyptians believed in spiritual life and thought dead kings would come to life to protect the city Used mummification to preserve bodieso Pyramids surrounded by places where priests used to live to preserve pyramid- Mesopotamia (now Iraq) had tombs (Old Kingdom)o Euphrates River overflowed not on scheduleo Royal Cemetery at Ur in Mesopotamia (1920s) killed “ladies in waiting” because they believed in an actual afterlifeo Symbolism in art and furniture- Egyptian burials in Middle and New Kingdomso Middle Kingdom  kings shared wealth with nobles Nobles wanted to be recognized too so they built smaller tombs- Smaller tombs had to be decorated with a lot of arto Pictures  very elaborate, generalized people; idea of human being, not exact replica - Amenophis/Amenhotep III  grandfather of Tutankhamen, father of Amenhotep IVo Great king and conqueroro New techniques in paintingo Principle wife was Queen Tiy- Amenhotep IV  18th Dynasty King (Amarna Period)o Challenged established religious cults of Ancient Egypto Adopted a new, unpopular religious system that was monotheistico Worshiped Aten, represented as the sun disk and built new Temple for son godo Changed his name to Akhenaten (“servant of Aten”)o Moved Thebes to a new city  Amarnao He is depicted with a long neck and nose  wanted to look otherworldly o Used hierarchy as a scale (king big, wife small)o City moved back to Thebes after his deatho All monuments smashed and broken by his son, Tutankhamen Also made it a law you couldn’t say his father’s name- Tomb of Tutankhamen (New Kingdom)o British man, Howard Carter, searched and found his tomb in desert in 1920so Only tomb found and discovered that wasn’t robbedo Disheveled condition when first opened because robbers looked for perfumeo Robbers caught and tomb was closed again1EXAM #1o Body was in three gold coffins, big to smallo Holds two symbols  shepherd crux and a whip Egyptians like duality- Cobra on headset and a vultureo Low swamp (south) and high ground (north)o He was 18 or 19 when he died  artificial beard for authorityo Hawk symbol of god Horuso Died by an infection from chariot accident in knee/legUNIT TWO- Bronze Age- Greece and Turkey, Island of Thera- Volcano exploded 1500 BC; large dust cloud- Kameni is land in the middle of Thera; still activeo Mud covered houses from volcano; only pottery, metals, and stones leftovero Influence from Creteo Largest palace @ Knossoso Home of Minoans- Aegean Historyo Early Bronze Age Old Kingdom, Egypto Middle Bronze Age Middle Kingdom, Egypto Late Bronze Age New Kingdom, Egypt- The Cycladeso Greeceo Anatoliao Crete- Palace at Knossoso Clay tabletso Foundations are only original architectureo Paintings survived in pieces, lost missing Controversial b/c people had to put pieces togethero Buildings survived up to second story, roofs didn’t surviveo Landscape with only lilies and rocks, no people Egyptian paintings have people, gods, and hieroglyphics Aegeans in Greece have no people, just landscape swallowso Triangular Squareo Miniature Fresco  scenes of everyday life; a journey No language Upper levels had to restored Very miniature, tiny figures Buildings had flat roofs Beginning of story telling Lower part was a depiction of a ship wreck River w/ shore, then a delta w/ a town  departure town Animal life is now deer Big boats, 40 yards on a football field Society of travelers, merchants- Differences  TWO DIFFERENT SOCIETIES*o In Egypt  glorification of Queen and King; very serious; unchangedo In Greece  no roles; ordinary peopleo Egypt2EXAM #1 Glorifies rulers Much richness Stiff and formal River valley, so had to work same time each yearo Thera Rulers not shown Ordinary people work Not so still No rivers, just small streams  Can crop a week earlier, or later and it won’t matter Travel appreciatedDISCUSSION- Egyptian geographyo Lower Egypt  lower elevation; Nile River Deltao Upper Egypt  higher elevation; origin of Nile Rivero Nile River Annual floods River resources- Minoan Periodo Acrotire, Thera, Greece, frescoso Crete, Knossos, Greece, Palace at Minoso Sea resourceso Traveled long distances- Hierarchy of scale  important in rank meant depicted bigger- Tomb of Nefertario Function  burial chamber in pyramids; completely dark in crisps where artistswereo Polytheistico Tombs show afterlifeo Nefertari has symbols in clothing Study of symbols called arachniography She dies and is being led to god of rebirth (Kehpri) Yellow ovals were names Typical Egyptian pose, represented whole body Limited access- Miniature Frescoo No dominant figureo Acrotireo Found in a houseo Everyone had accesso Fresco  limestone powder and water with pigmentsUNIT THREE: THE PARTHENON, ATHENS, GREECE 447-432 BC- Architects: Iktinos and Kallikrates created the Parthenono This hill was chosen b/c it could be defended easilyo Large rocky hill is only original left from later Bronze Age- Parthenon (5th century)  democracy- Greece in Late Bronze Age called Mycenaean Period- City Mycenae still stands- Chronology o Late Bronze Age 1600-1200 BC (pharaoh, King Tut)o Early Iron Age Begins 1200 BC3EXAM #1o Geometric Period 900-700 BCo Archaic Period 700-500 BCo Classical Period 500-323 BC (Death of Alex the Great)- Greece was divided into Kingdomso Kingdoms fought each other- Economic collapse at the end of the Bronze Ageo Theories of invasions from north, widespread climate change, warfaro Nothing definite thougho Greece decline, cities abandoned, lived in little towns- Geometric Period 900-700 BC  geometric designso Economy improvedo Designs made more complex, not naturalistic; symbolicallyo Krater is closed- Archaic Period 700-500 BC  more naturalistico Greece divided into city-stateso Sparta had kingso Achilles and

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TEMPLE ARTH 0808 - Exam 1

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