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EXAM TWOLECTURE ONE 3/6/13CHAPTER FOURPhysical Developmental InfancyHealth/Wellness  complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing- Infant Mortality (death )  # of deaths during a particular year per one thousand live births  Increase mortality caused by poor maternal health, when mothers have inadequate prenatal care, infant malnutrition, and limited access to health care Infant mortality also increased with:- Mothers age  higher in women younger than 20 and older than 40 - Being African American (twice as high as national average 14 per 1000)- If mother smokes (68% higher)- Education- Gender (higher in boys than girls)- Region of country  higher in southern states and lower in northeast and west Angola has the highest rate of infant mortality at 190 per 1000 live births Sweden tends to have the lowest rate at 3 per 1000 live births US is one of the highest industrialized countries of world is at 7 per 1000- Three leading causes of infant mortality in US1. Birth defects2. Being of low birth weight (premature) especially at risk Lack of access to early, adequate prenatal care3. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Highest mortality rates are in regions of southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa- 20% of African women can expect to lose an infant in their lifetime- 40% of children who die before five years tend to be newborns- World Health Organization estimates that 75% of newborn deaths could be prevented with proper maternal nutrition, appropriate medical care during pregnancy and child birth, and adequate care after birth- Nutrition  process by which we take in food, and use it to supply the bodyo Adequate nutrition has strong links to child’s growth and wellbeingo Breastfeed or not? If not, then parents will bottle feed American Academy of Pediatrics  “uniquely better for infant’s being; recommended baby is breastfed for first six months of life; breastfeeding w supplementation should continue to 12 months of ageo Benefits for infant: Lower rates of infectious diseases- Lower likelihood of ear and respiratory tract infections, diarrhea Lower rates of infant mortality Less likely die from SIDs Decreases likelihood of childhood diabetes Less likely for childhood cancer- Decreases likelihood of developing asthmao Benefits to mother Lessens likelihood of bleeding after delivery Increase spacing of kids- Women who breastfeed stop ovulating Earlier return to pre-pregnancy weight Decrease likelihood of developing ovarian and breast cancer1EXAM TWO Less likely to develop osteoporosiso Malnutrition  lacking one or more nutrients that are needed for the body Especially important in first two years (when brain and nervous system are developing rapidly); malnutrition can impair brain and nervous system functioningo Two forms to malnutrition: Macronutrient (less common) diet that contains too few calories to sustain growth- Extreme will cause Marasmus diseaseo Infants w Marasmus are severely underweight, more likely to have nerve damage, may have chronic diarrhea, may be a link to mental illness in adulthood- Kwashiorkor Disease  diet deficient in proteino Develops when baby is weaned from mother’s breast and doesn’t receive proteins of another formo Physical problems including swelling feet and hands, irritability, and possibly brain damage Micronutrient (common in US)  estimated that 65% of infants have diets that are deficient in iron - Diets low enough in iron to cause anemiao Children w anemia tend to score on mental and motor development and in some cases kids show signs of language impairmento More likely if mother is iron deficient, low birth weight, if they drink cow’s milk (low in iron), or if parents use low iron formula- Diet deficient in calcium or vitamin Do Rickets Softening or weakening of child’s bones Food insecurity  frequent lack of access to enough food for active and healthy living- 18% of families in US are food insecure- 30% if single parent households in the country are food insecure- Rate of Immunization o Infants need shots early in life to protect against diseases o Considered an indicator of country’s health statuso Full set of shots include:1. Hepatitis2. DTP (diphtheria tetanus impetuses) 3. Flu4. Polio5. Measles and Chicken poxo 80% of kids in US will receive full set of shots (discrepancy in textbook) Highest rate in Connecticut (94% receive full set) Lowest rate in Colorado (67% receive full set) PA has 69%  Philadelphia is 68% full set of shotso Around the world, 78% of kids receive immunization of DPT which is considered bare minimum for essential shots (up from 20% in 1980o Southeast Asian and sub-Saharan Africa receive lowest percent (Which is?)***2EXAM TWOo Child’s health care insuranceo In 2003, 12% of all kids, 20% living in poverty, lacked health care insuranceo Kids who lack coverage are less likely to receive care for infections (tonsillitis, asthma, regular wellbeing baby checkups, and more likely to use hospital ER rooms at routine careo Around the world, about 10.6 million kids die before reaching five years old of conditions from immunizations that medical care would prevent ornot treat Kids are likely to succumb to respiratory infections, measles, diarrhea Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  healthy infants w no apparent problems are put down to sleep at night and then won’t wake up Leading cause of death under one Most at risk from 2 to 4 months Causes are not well known, but we know how to decrease likelihood Factors linked to SIDs:o Infant’s sleeping position  on stomach has more higher risk Campaign in 2000s tried to get parent’s to get kids to sleep on back- SIDS rate declined by 48% Soft bedding Over heating  wrapped too tightly in too much clothing Increased during winter months Mother’s smoking before and after pregnancy Infant exposed to illicit drugs prenatallyLECTURE TWO: 3/18/13Physical Activity and Obesity- Great concern over obesity rates in America- If kids are obese is early childhood, there is a likely chance they will be obese in adulthood- Physically active: 3 years -12 years oldso Researchers took kids when they were young, followed them to three years old and twelve years oldo Factors linked to Kids are more active Gender (males more than females) Kids who’s families have a nutritious diet Kids were more active if they spent

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TEMPLE PSY 2301 - Chapter 4

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