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Can you list and compare the 2 physiological divisions of the ANS? Sympathetic or thoracolumbar: ventral roots- Adapts body for physical activity Increases alertness, heart rate, blood pressure, pulmonary airflow, blood glucose concentration, and blood flow to cardiac and skeletal muscle; reduces blood flow to skin and digestive tract Fight of flight reaction Arousal, exercise, competition, stress, danger, trauma, anger, fear Parasympathetic or craniosacral- Calming effect on body functions- Reduced energy expenditure and normal bodily maintenance Digestion, waste elimination Resting and digestion state Both active simultaneously, cooperative or contrasting effects How do the 2 divisions compare regarding autonomic efferent innervation? Sympathetic: innervates thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord [all thoracic and L1-3] Parasympathetic: innervates CN 3, 7, 9, 10 and ventral roots of S 2, 3, 4How does autonomic efferent innervation compare with somatic efferent innervation? Signals travel faster in somatic system [fewer synapses, fibers heavily myelinated] NT effect in ANS depends on receptors on target organ [may inhibit or excite] Somatic: effectors - skeletal muscle; myelinated motor fiber; ACh at synapse Autonomic: visceral effectors [cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, glands]; myelinated preganglionic fiber, unmyelinated postganglionic fiber; ACh in ganglionWhat are the NTs for pre and post ganglionic synapses in sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers? Sympathetic- NT for preganglionic synapse: ACh- Postganglionic cell bodies: in sympathetic chain ganglia along vertebral column, also in 3 cervical gangliasuperior to chain Parasympathetic- NT at both synapses – ACh - Postganglionic cell bodies: in effector organ wallCompare SNS and PNS re: fiber length, cell body location, NT effects Sympathetic- NT at effector – norepinephrine, widespread in the body, fight or flight arousal- Cell body: lateral horn of cord- Postganglionic cell bodies: in sympathetic chain ganglia along vertebral column, also in 3 cervical gangliasuperior to chain- Length of fibers: preganglionic is short, postganglionic is long Parasympathetic- NT at both synapses – ACh; single response at effector, synapse close to effector, rest and repair- Cell body: brain stem and sacral cord- Postganglionic cell bodies: in effector organ wall- Length of fibers: preganglionic is long, postganglionic is shortCompare the ANS with the somatic nervous system. ANS: carries signals to glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. Usually no voluntary control over these effectors. Operates at unconscious level. Responses of ANS and its effectors are visceral reflexes. SNS: carries signals from CNS to glands and muscle cells that carry out the body’s responses. What is the function of the hippocampus? Of the amygdala? Hippocampus: forms new memories & Amygdala: emotional memory Both part of the limbic systemIdentify some areas other than the post central gyrus that are sensory areas and where are they located? Lateral spinothalamic: cord to thalamus Fasciculus cuneatus: upper extremity to thalamus Fasciculus gracilis: lower extremity to thalamus Dorsal spinocerebellar: cord to cerebellum Reticulospinal: reticular formation of pons and medulla to cord Rubrospinal: red nucleus to skeletal muscle Post-central gyrus: primary sensory, information from receptors in skin proprioceptorsWhat are memory traces? Where is immediate memory stored? Pathway of the physical basis of memory in which new synapses have formed or existing synapses have been modified to make transmission easier  Chemical and structural changes that encode memory; widely distribute; occurs in stages and constantly changing Immediate memory stored in the frontal lobe by reverberating circuitsWhere are the basal nuclei located in the brain? What is the function of this region? Masses of gray matter in the cerebrum, lateral to thalamus Three brain centers: caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus [corpus striatum]  One of the two subcortical motor areas, cerebellum is the other Receive input from entire cerebral cortex and midbrain & send signals back; motor control important in:- Starting, stopping, monitoring movements executed by the cortex; slow, sustained, stereotyped movements [arms swinging while walking, eating]- Inhibit antagonistic or unnecessary movements- Enhances ability to perform multiple tasks- Impairments leads to disturbances in muscle tone/posture, tremors, abnormally slow movementsWhat is the function of the thalamus? Of the hypothalamus? Thalamus functions include:- Major sensory relay station besides smell- Processes input and selectively relays signals to the postcentral gyrus and insula- Taste, general senses, equilibrium [position and movement] Hypothalamus functions include:- Control and integration of ANS- Regulation of heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, hunger and body weight, water and electrolyte balance- Body temperature and sleep regulation- Controls movements and secretion in digestive track- Controls emotional responses and behavior [pleasure, pain, fear, rage]- Physical expressions of emotion [sweating, dry mouth, increased heart rate]- “heart” of the limbic system, emotional part of the brain- Controls endocrine function – produces “releasing hormones” which control pituitary hormone secretionWhat are the geniculate bodies? What are their function? Either of two protuberances on the inferior surface of the thalamus that relay auditory and visual impulses respectively to the cerebral cortex Medial and lateral posterior to the end of the thalamus Function in visual and auditory relayInfundibulum?  Connects pituitary gland to hypothalamusWhat are the mammillary bodies and their function? A pair of small round bodies, located on the undersurface of the@brain, that, as part of the@diencephalon form part of the@limbic system Posterior to infundibulum Olfactory relayWhat is the pineal gland and its function? Extends from roof of diencephalon Secretes hormones: functions with endocrine systemWhat is the limbic system and its function? Functional organization of structures; structures in medial aspect of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalon Encircles upper brain stem; structures: hippocampus, mammillary bodies, hypothalamus, anterior nuclei of thalamus,

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TEMPLE KINS 1223 - Lecture notes

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