Montana State BIOH 201 - Limbic System (AKA motivational system)

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13.7-13.12 of Visual A&P by Martini Ober and NathLimbic System (AKA motivational system)-nuclei and tracts located in the cerebrum and diencephalon that make you want to do things-Functions1. establishing emotional states2. linking the conscious, intellectual functions of the cerebral cortex with the unconscious and autonomic functions of the brain stem3. facilitating memory storage and retrieval-In the Cerebrum1. limbic lobe-made up of Cingulate gyrus (superior portion), and Parahippocampal gyrus (inferior portion)2. Hippocampus-elongate nucleus that looks like a sea horse anatomically that is important in learning and retrieval of long-term memories-In the Diencephalon1. Anterior group of thalamic nuclei - relays info from the mamillary body to the cingulate gyrus2. Hypothalamus-responsible for the emotions of rage, fear, pain, sexual arousal, and pleasure3. Mamillary body-Other parts1. Corpus callosum 2. Fornix-tract of white matter that connects the hippocampus with the hypothalamus3. Central sulcus4. Pineal gland5. Amygdaloid body-an crossing point among the limbic system, cerebrum, and many sensory systems. Helps regulate heart rate in the "fight or flight" response, and linking emotions with memories.Basal nuclei of the cerebrum-masses of gray matter that lie within each hemisphere deep to the floor of the lateral ventricleFunctions1. Provide subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone and help coordinate learned movement patterns2. Make up the internal capsule of the cerebrumParts1. Caudate nucleus2. Lentiform nucleus (lens-shaped)-Subdivided into: globus pallidus and a lateral putamenModifying ongoing movements process:1. Somatic sensory receptors receive input2. Goes to cerebral cortex- sensory areas 3. In the sensory areas: Processing and integration happen in basal nuclei- the caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, or putamen4. In the motor areas: the globus pallidus sends indirect modification of movement by output to the cerebral cortex after synapsing in the thalamus. This causes voluntary skeletal muscle movement. The globus pallidus also sends direct control over movements through stimulation ofmotor nuclei (the red nucleus, the superior and inferior cliiculi, and the reticular formation) in the brain stem. This causes subconscious adjustments in muscle tone and limb position to facilitate ongoing movements.Lobes (superficial landmarks used to divide the surface of cerebral cortex into lobes)-Superficial landmarks1. Lateral sulcus: separate the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe2. Precentral gyrus: contains the primary motor cortex3. Central sulcus: deep groove that divides the anterior frontal lobe from the more posterior parietal lobe4. Postcentral gyrus: posterior to the central sulcus, contains the primary sensory cortex that receives sensory information that reaches our conscious awareness5. Insula: "island" of cortex, lies medial to the lateral sulcus6. Parieto-occipital sulcus: visible on the medial surface separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobeImportant Features:1. The left cerebral hemisphere controls muscles on the right side of the body and the right cerebral hemisphere controls muscles on the left side of the body2. The two hemispheres look identical and have similar functions, but there are differences between the two3. The correspondence between a specific function and a specific region of the cerebral cortex in not certain. Consciousness, for example, cannot be assigned to a single region.Association areas: regions of the cortex that interpret incoming data or coordinate a motor response1. Motor cortex: neurons called pyramidal cells; somatic motor association area is responsible for coordination of learned movements2. Gustatory cortex: receives info from taste receptors3. Olfactory cortex: sensory info from the olfactory receptors4. Auditory cortex: primary auditory cortex-responsible for monitoring auditory information; auditory association area-monitors sensoryy activity in the auditroy cortex and recognizes sounds like spoken words5. Sensory cortex: Somatic sensory association area-monitors activity in the primary sensory cortex. Allows you to recognize a light touch, like a fly on your arm.6. Visual cortex: primary visual cortex-receives info from the lateral geniculate nuclei; visual association area- monitors the patterns of activity in the visual cortex and interprets the results ex. seeing the letters d o and g and interpreting the word dog.Integrative centers: place where complex processes are performed like speech, writing, mathematics, and understanding spatial relationships. Assigned to either the left or the right hemisphere. 1. The speech center (Broca area): lies in the same hemisphere as the general interpretive area. Regulates patterns of breathing and vocalization needed for normal speech.2. The prefrontal cortex: coordinates ino relayed from the association areas of the cortex. Helps predict the consequences of events or actions.3. The frontal eye field: controls learned eye movements like when you move them to read4. The general interpretive area (Wernicke area): receive info from all the sensory association areas. Only present in one hemisphere (typically the left). Plays role in your personality. Hemisphere lateralization:1. Left cerebral hemisphere (in most individuals): contains general interpretative and speech centers for language based skills. Also important for analytical tasks like math and logic. 2. Right cerebral hemisphere (in most individuals): analyzes sensory information and relates the body to the sensory environment. Helps in identifying objects based on sight, smell, touch. Also helps in interpreting facial cues and emotions. 3. Fun fact: about 9% of the human population are left handed. White matter-interconnects the cerebral hemispheres, the lobes of each hemisphere, and links the cerebrum to the rest of the brainWhite matter groups1. Association fibers: interconnect areas of neural cortex within a single cerebral hemisphere- arcuate fibers: shortest association fibers. They curve in an arc to pass from one gyrus to another- Longitudinal fasciculi: longer association fibers organized into discrete bundles or faciculi. They connect the frontal lobe to the other lobes of the same cerebralhemisphere2. Commissural fibers: interconnect the cerebral hemispheres- Corpus callosum: most important3. Projection fibers: link the cerebral cortex to the diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord.-

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