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“Anatomically modern” Homo sapiensQafzeh (Israel)90,000 – 100,000 ya3 flexedBorder Cave (South Africa)90,000 ya ??Klasies River Mouth (South Africa)Occupied 130,000 – 60,000 yaMaxillary fragments at 120,000better evidence at 90,000 yaH. s. s.traits:Vertical foreheadReduced BrowHigh cranial vault with high maximum widthThinner cranial bonesLess PrognathismReduced incisorsDistinct projecting chinCro Magnon (France)30,000 yaAssociated with Upper Paleolithic tool industryBig game huntingYear-round campsGreater tool inventorybone tools and boiling stonesArtVenus figuresCave paintings(Lascaux, France 17,000 ya)OriginsOut of Africa (Eve hypothesis/Recent African Origins)Extreme:Population that evolved in Africa and spread out to replace everything elseMultiregional continuityExtreme:Independent pockets evolve independentlyThe truth lies between themOut of AfricaBased on analysis of modern human mtDNAWhy use mtDNA?Only 16,500 base pairsMaternal (mother) inheritanceFast evolutionSelectively neutral mutationsaccrue mutations thru time, no effect on function of mtDNA“Molecular clock”Divergence traced back~ 200,000 ya (290,000 to 140,000 ya)African sample was more variable, thus older“Eve” was from AfricaCritiqueWhy should the most variable population be the oldest?Genetic Drift vs. Gene FlowIs the most parsimonious solution the correct solution?Maximum parsimony:Common ancestor, least mutationsMore than one parsimonious solutionHow reliable is the “Molecular clock”?Depends in “stochastically regular” mutationsWorks well over the long term, more dicey in the short termMultiregional Continuity modelPopulations evolve in situBased on morphological continuity in Asia, Africa, and EuropeExample:Dali cheek bonesv shaped notch on cheek boneM3 agenesis3rd molar doesn't developEuropean sloping foreheads, retro-molar spaces, facial proportionsOut of Africa again and againGene flow latticeOrigins of Modern Humans 03/27/2014“Anatomically modern” Homo sapiens- Qafzeh (Israel)o 90,000 – 100,000 yao 3 flexed- Border Cave (South Africa)o 90,000 ya ??- Klasies River Mouth (South Africa)o Occupied 130,000 – 60,000 yao Maxillary fragments at 120,000 o better evidence at 90,000 yaH. s. s. - traits:o Vertical foreheado Reduced Browo High cranial vault with high maximum widtho Thinner cranial boneso Less Prognathismo Reduced incisorso Distinct projecting chin- Cro Magnon (France)- 30,000 ya- Associated with Upper Paleolithic tool industry- Big game hunting- Year-round camps- Greater tool inventoryOrigins of Modern Humans 03/27/2014o bone tools and boiling stones- Arto Venus figureso Cave paintings (Lascaux, France 17,000 ya)- Originso Out of Africa (Eve hypothesis/Recent African Origins) Extreme: Population that evolved in Africa and spreadout to replace everything elseo Multiregional continuity Extreme: Independent pockets evolve independentlyo The truth lies between them Out of Africa Based on analysis of modern human mtDNA- Why use mtDNA?o Only 16,500 base pairso Maternal (mother) inheritanceo Fast evolutiono Selectively neutral mutations accrue mutations thru time, no effect on functionof mtDNAo “Molecular clock” Divergence traced back - ~ 200,000 ya (290,000 to 140,000 ya)- African sample was more variable, thus oldero “Eve” was from AfricaOrigins of Modern Humans 03/27/2014 Critique- Why should the most variable population be the oldest?o Genetic Drift vs. Gene Flow- Is the most parsimonious solution the correct solution?o Maximum parsimony: Common ancestor, least mutationso More than one parsimonious solution- How reliable is the “Molecular clock”?o Depends in “stochastically regular” mutationso Works well over the long term, more dicey in the short term Multiregional Continuity model Populations evolve in situ Based on morphological continuity in Asia, Africa, and Europe- Example:o Dali cheek bones v shaped notch on cheek boneo M3 agenesis 3rd molar doesn't developo European sloping foreheads, retro-molar spaces, facial proportions Out of Africa again and again- Gene flow


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OSU ANTHROP 3300 - Origins of Modern Humans

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