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Literary criticismThorough analysis and interpretation of a textThree essential ways:SociologicalSociety, history affects plotPsychoanalytic (Freud)Analyze the character’s way of thinkingTraditionalAncient Greece: AristotleUse of modern literary devicesA Portrait of An Artist: James JoyceSociologicalIrish Catholic historyPsychoanalyticStephen’s thoughts and personalityTraditionalSemi-autobiographical novelBildunsgroman and KuntleromanComing of age storyGrowth and development of a character from youth to adulthoodExternal factors affect character’s:PersonalityMaturityFeelingsGoal: protagonist gains maturityThis character is weak and youngSearch for self-definition and individualizationSub-genreFocuses on artists’ process of growth through the recreation of beautyTragic Comedy and Elizabethan and Jacobean DramaShakespeare grew up in Stratford58 plays152 sonnets2 long narrative poemsAnne Hathaway-wifeHamlet and Judith- daughtersLived in London as an actor, writer, and play writerOwned company Lord Chamberlain Men (King’s Men)Published works 1632Retired at 49 yrsHe was famous by his time, but we owe the recreation of his works to the 19th and 20th century scholarsElizabethan Period tragedy must end in the death of the main character“The spectacle by rousing in us pity and fear purges us of these emotions.” – AristotleElizabethan and Jacobean Drama (16th and 17th century)Early modern drama1567-first English theatre appeared Red Lion1642- closure of theaters due to Puritansplays were written in verse, iambic pentameterChristopher Marlow, Thomas MiddletonProminent play wrights that criticized ShakespeareDrama themes:historic events and figuresRevenge dramasComediesCity comedy – life in LondonClassical mythology included in playsDrew techniques from Roman play wrightsAudienceUpper and lower classesAt the end of period, most theatres were designed for the more affluent member of societyLoyalty, forgiveness, and honor in King LearJustice- quality by which fairness is employedNo justice in King LearLoyalty- root of much of the play’s optionForgivenessTo seize resentment towards someoneGreatest show of love is forgivenessHonorIntegrity in ones believes and actionsSeparates the virtuous from the unethical charactersRegan and others don’t have itSix themes in King LearFamilyMembers who want powerGoneril, Regan, and EdmundMadnessDysfunctional family relationships in King LearLear and his daughterFather and two sonsWhy does Cordelia stay loyal to his father?Father favored EdgarEdgar reciprocated his father’s love for himTreated Edmund with less respectWhy does Edgar stay loyal to his father?Favoritism created resentment and provoked other daughtersCordelia reciprocated Lear’s love for herThrough her actionsGreed envy anger and lustCapital sinsAnalysis of King Lear in relation to Conscience, Dignity, and MoralityConscienceTwo characters serve as Lear’s conscienceThe fool brings Lear to his sensesReality to his faceKentLear’s voice of reasonLear loses conscience because of his prideHe sees reality in a difference wayLeads him to his deathDignityLear expects obedienceHe was stripping himself from his dignity as a father and as a kingValuesTrust lacks in the playBetrayal happens between most charactersCordelia, Kent, and EdgarRepresent values of trust, honesty dutyEdmund, Regan, GonerilRepresent vices of lust, greed, angerMoralityAlbany decides to follow a life of valuesGoes against his own wife to save LearThe play’s message might be to respect your eldersAlso: respect who loves you truly, not by flatteryStream of consciousnessCoined by William James19th century authors were first one to usebreaking away from Victorian formalityStarted as philosophical branchAuthors use it to imitate how characters thinkReaders cant tell the difference btw objective reality and the reality of what we readOnly one perspective is portrayedUlysses is the epitome of stream of consciousnessLiterary devices used by Shakespeare in King LearAllusionsSubtle or direct reference to something outside booksShakespeare uses many Biblical allusionsSoliloquyMonologues of characters within the playGive reader insight to the character’s stream of consciousnessEdmund’s soliloquyLust for powerCritique of society that shuns him because he is a bastardPunsPlay of wordsThe fool uses punsShakespeare uses puns to communicate universal truthsMetaphorsAnalogies that relate unrelated objects or conceptsGloucester blindnessThe tempest serves to represent the storm in his mindSimileRelate unrelated objects with words such as “like, as, seems”“As curls from diamonds from drop”Irish politics, history, and religionSettingDublin (1882-1903)Irish Catholics gained religious rights and political privilegesSimon, for example, has more economic rights as a Catholic and is able to pay Stephen’s schoolsMr. Casey against Catholic pietyCharles ParnellLeader of movement that advocated that Irish parliament needed to be independent from English ParliamentChurch was involved in politicsParnell committed adulteryJesuitsAffects Stephen greatlyDecides to be a priest at first, then decides to be an artist and leave all religious life behindAttends Clongowes and BeverleyIncludes in his workGreek mythologyIrish historyDICTIONIMAGERYDETAILSLANGUAGESYNTAXSestinaOriginally FrenchAppeared in 12th century by Arnau JeubreoTrovadourSinger for the French nobleSpread to France, east Spain, and north ItalyIts about romantic flirtation and desireComplex and difficultChallenging formRather than simply rhyming the actual line ending words are repeated in successive stanzas in a designated order123456615243364125Petrarch and Danté used sestinaGrouped into six sextets and a concluding tercetLiterary TheoryLiterary criticism - Thorough analysis and interpretation of a texto Three essential ways: Sociological Society, history affects plot  Psychoanalytic (Freud) Analyze the character’s way of thinking Traditional- Ancient Greece: Aristotle o Use of modern literary devices- A Portrait of An Artist: James Joyceo Sociological Irish Catholic historyo Psychoanalytic  Stephen’s thoughts and personalityo Traditional  Semi-autobiographical novel Bildunsgroman and Kuntleroman- Coming of age storyo Growth and development of a character from youth to adulthood External factors affect character’s: Personality Maturity  Feelings o Goal: protagonist gains maturity  This character is weak and young


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BC EN 259 - Literary Theory

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