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 Hardware  Basic computer components (Input, storage, processing, output – what are examples of each?) Input: mouse Storage  Processing  Central processing unit (CPU) >> faster, more processors, bigger cache, more powerful, more expensive Microprocessor: part of computer that executes instructions of a program; brain Multicore microprocessors: microprocessors with 2 or more (typically lower powered) calculating processor cores; cooler and use less power Massively parallel computing: computers designed with many microprocessors that work together simultaneously to solve problems  Grid computing: uses software to enable several computers to work together on a common problem as if they were a massively parallel super computer  Output: printer  What is binary? Why is it important? How does it relate to decimal? Binary (0,1) >> everything in computers is coded into binary; base 2  100 in binary = 4 in decimal  1*2^0 = 0  1*2^1 = 0  1*2^2 = 4  How is data stored? Bits, bytes, types of storage (primary, secondary). Computer storage is in weird quantities because they work in base 2 binary system not base 10 decimal system Bit: fundamental unit of info 8 bits = 1 byte (1 byte is 1 character of info) BMGT 301 >> 8*8 = 64 bits Volatile storage: primary, transient, if power is turned off then you loose everything, RAM (random access memory) = fast chip based storage Nonvolatile storage: secondary, permanent, if power is turned off then you still retain info, hard drive, CD/DVD, flash memory (used in cameras)  Moore’s law and implications and challenges Moore’s law: more power for the same price or same power for a cheaper price Chip performance/processing power doubles every 18 months Data storage doubles every 12 months Optical fiber doubles every 9 months Challenges: heat, size, power  Networking and Internet  What does a client do? What does a server do? Client: desktop; runs interface, operating system, may run certain programs, store some data, individual resource Server: powerful/central, stores application programs, stores data files, manages shared resources like printers/hard drives, runs complex programs, connected to clients via a network, shared resource  Client server architecture is allowed through local area networks (LAN) which allows users to share resources  How is data transmitted on the Internet? Web browser on client computer sends an HTTP request over the internet to the server asking for an HTML file Server gets the file from the directory Server sends the file over the internet to client computer Browser displays HTML file What is TCP/IP and why is it important? TCP & IP allows devices to communicate; a shared set of rules/protocol  IP: internet protocol; figures out how to get packets to their destination, when receiving packets, it figures out where they belong  TCP: transport control protocol; ensures that packets are received in the order they are sent andthat lost packets are retransmitted  Packet switching vs. circuit switching Packet switching: breaks each message into small packets (frames); sends these packets one after the other using the lines/switches efficiently as needed; when a packet arrives the switch must decide which of several successor switches to send it to; each packet of a message may go through a different sequence of switches  Circuit switching: path is decided on before data transmission starts; dedicated path and exclusive  Database fundamentals  Why is information quality important? What are the characteristics of high quality information? What problems/costs are associated with poor quality information? Info quality is important because companies use data to create a competitive advantage  Characteristics of high quality information Accuracy, completeness, security, uniqueness, consistency, timeliness Problems associated with poor quality information Difficulty identifying valuable customers Inability to identify selling opportunities Marketing to nonexistent customers Difficulty tracking revenue bc of inaccurate invoices  Inability to build strong customer relationships  Entities, attributes, instances of an entity Entity: a person, place, thing or event about which data and information are collected Classes, students, customer, order, item, distributor, product, orderline, discount  Attribute: a category of data that describes an entity; characteristics Student’s name, address, GPA, customer number  Instances of an entity: Tables, columns/fields, rows/records Columns/fields: an attribute of an entity Rows/record: a collection of fields containing info about 1 instance of the entity  Tables: a collection of records Relationships and ER Diagrams: model the relationship among the entities in the database; a communication tool; foundation for designing the database  Cardinality: the number of instances of 1 entity type that are associated with a single instance ofanother entity type in a relationship [student (0,M) lives in dorm (1,1)] … a student lives in 1 dorm, a dorm can have zero to many students Primary keys: an attribute that uniquely identifies a row/record in a table  Foreign keys: non-key attribute in one table that appears as the primary key in another table  Normalization rules Normalization: a technique to make databases more efficient by removing undesirable redundancy (break large tables into smaller tables)  Given examples like the ones in class, identify problems or pick the best design. What problems does normalization help avoid? >> Inefficiency and redundancy  Data integrity Referential integrity: foreign keys must match a primary key in the linked table and cannot be blank  Business rules Access Labs The test may ask conceptual questions about how or why you would use the software (e.g., when would you use a form vs. a report in Access, why or when would you use a validation rule or input mask in Access?). It may also ask you to show how tasks would be performed using screenshots (see examples below). Software  Types of software (e.g., System, Application) Application software Allows the user to perform one or more specific tasks Types of application software Productivity software: focus on increased efficiency (Word, spreadsheet)


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UMD BMGT 301 - Hardware

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