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AttributionExample: why accidents happenCausal attribution- assigning a cause for an event or behavior(Think of a time you performed poorly on an exam)Attribution theory - the theory of how people explain others behaviorsWhy do people act the way that they doWhat prompts attribution ?Unexpected events Negative events Motivation : gain a sense of control over our environment (heider)(Explain why people do what they do an learn from it)Dimensions of attributions• Locus internal vs external• Dispositional attribution: cause is internal characteristic and stable• Situational attribution: cause is external contextual and unstable• Stability (permanent vs temporary) independent of causality• Globality (all people like this or few)• Controlability (within your control or not)Discounting (reducing weight to a cause when other factors present could produce same effect ex performing poorly when sick ) sickness weighs performancenot the playerAugmenting ( increase weight to a cause when other factors present would produce an opposite effect ) performing well when sick you give them over praiseJudgements should be made with respect to the situation When crazy factors are at play it shouldn't all be on the personWhat is an implicit personality theory? a type of schema people use to organize and make sense of which personality traits and behaviors go togetherWhat are nonverbal behaviors? Nonconcsious mimicry? How do these phenomenon inform our understanding of people's true interactions/feelings?What is Kelly's covariation model of attribution? According to Kelly, what are the most important components of an individuals behavior that we takein to account when making attributions? How do we use these different components to derive a given attribution?Covariation model of attribution• Humans behave as naive scientists when making attributionsConsistency : does the person usually behave this.way in this situation Distinctiveness : Does the person behave different in different situations Consensus: do others behave similarly in this situationDispositions attribution• High consistency (every time)• Low distinctiveness• Low consensus• That's how the person isSituational• High consistency• High distinctiveness• High consensus• That's how the context (situation ) isEx: Josh at the bar (always drunk at this bar, gets drunk at other bars, other people don't get drunk at this bar)Dispositional (it is johns character)Ex 95 20 90 0Helpful vs unhelpful friendsMath equations on ppSee if you put more weight on people or the situationMost put more emphasis on the situationWhat is the difference between internal and external attributions?• Dispositional attribution: cause is internal characteristic and stable• Situational attribution: cause is external contextual and unstable* Fundamental attribution error (Read)Fundamental attribution error (fae)When explaining the behavior of others we have a fundamental tendency to• Overestimate the role of dispositions characteristics• Underestimate role of situational characteristics• Lewins field theoryDiscounting principle: we should discount a dispositional cause for behavior if other plausible situation causes are known• I Vs• Observers heard speak in favor/ against Castro• Observers told the speaker did/ Did not choose the topic• DV : observers ratings of speakers attitude towards Castro• Results: people would like Castro speech if it was in favor and did not like if against (not situational )Study• Questioner (quiz master) make hard questions• Contestant - answer questions• Observers - audience• DV : ratings of Q and C General knowledgePredict that the questioner is smarter even though he is.making the questions Q rated Q and c equalC rated q higherO rated q a lot higherAttributions for others behaviors : fae• Attributions for our own behavior• Actor-observer bias• Dispositional explanation for others behaviors• Situational explanation for our own behavior• Salience of different information• For our own behavior situation is salient• For others behaviors- others are salient• Storms - perspective study• 2 actors converse• 2 observers watch• Conversation videotaped• Interaction is played back to some but not others• Actors and observers make attribution for actors behavior• Sometimes they don't see tape (only go off of other person being salient)• Can watch video of self or of other actor• No video = actor is situational but observers give dispositions• From own view= actor purely situational and observers dispositions• From other view = actor totally dispositions and observer is more situationalWhat are self serving biases?Self serving attribution• Dispositional explanations for positive outcomes• Situational explanation for our negative

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UD PSYC 414 - Attribution

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