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CCJS300 Exam 1 Study GuideIntroduction to Research Methods- Why do we need to study research methods?- We need formal ways of asking and answering questionso We sometimes make errors in our personal human inquiries Inaccurate observations Overgeneralizations (stereotyping) Selective observation (ex: hear what you want to hear) Illogical reasoning (Gambler’s fallacy) Ideology and politics- Other Social Sciences that use the same research methods:- Anthropology- Economics- Psychology- Sociology- Social WorkFeatures of the Scientific Method- Empirical- Verifiable- Cumulative- Self-Correcting- Ethical and ideologically neutral- Statistically Generalizable Types of Questions asked by Social Scientists- Measurement questions (age, etc.)- Descriptive Questions (describe what is happening right now)- Exploratory Questions (ex: explore averages of descriptive statistics)- Causal Questions (what causes crime?)- Evaluative Questions (ex: does D.A.R.E. work?)Who are the Researchers?- Professors/Academics- Government employees- Practitioners (non-academic)- Journalists- ScientistsTheories, Paradigms, and Methods- Theory: attempt to develop plausible explanations of reality- Paradigm: essentially an overview of theories- Ex: Behaviorism- Problem: can shiftTwo Logical Systems Linking Theory and Research- Deductive Logic: derivation of expectations and hypotheses from theories- Inductive Logic: development of generalizations from specific observationsTypes of Research- Pure vs. Applied- Pure: basic research that wants to gain new knowledge- Applied: have problem that you want to solve- Qualitative vs. Quantitative- Qualitative: observational or historical approach- Quantitative: concepts have to be mathematizedBasic Approaches to Research- Positivist: auguste comte (hard sciences take this approach)- Interpretive: Max Weber (experiential)- Critical: Marx, Freud (make the world a better place)Scientific Research and Time- Cross-sectional Research: snapshot of a collection of people at one particular time- Survey research works this way- Longitudinal Research: Time as a variable- Time Series: observe different people at multiple times- Panel: observe the same people at 2 or more times- Cohort: observe people who shared an experience at 2 or more times- Case Study: observe a small set of people intensely across timePurposes of Research- Exploration- Description (Descriptive Statistics)- Explanation (Causality)- Evaluation/ApplicationThe Language of Research- Concepts: Abstract tags that we place on reality- Operationalization: turning concepts into measurable things- Variables:- Dependent: variables that are being predicted (effect)- Independent: variables that are doing the predicting (cause)- Hypotheses: Specific statements that describe the relationship between the DV and IVThe Research ProcessDeduction Operationalization Measurement Analysis InductionTheory  Hypotheses  Research Design  Data Gathering Findings  TheoryGeneral Steps in Empirical Research- Problem Formulation: what are you interested in studying?- Research Design: What research method will you use?- Data Collection Methods- Analysis, Presentation of Findings- Conclusions, Interpretations, LimitationsEthics in Research- Definition: doing what is morally and legally right in the conduction of research. The most serious question in researchEthical Horror Stories- Biomedical Examples: Nazi Research, teaching children to stutter, etc.- Social Science Examples: Milgram Obedience Study, Zimbardo Simulated Prison Study, Humphrey’s “Tea Room Trade” study, Project Camelot- Researcher fraud and plagiarism: making up own dataRules to Research- No Harm to Participants: like the Hippocratic oath- Voluntary participation- Anonymity and confidentiality- Deceiving respondents?  Generally not a good idea- Codes of Professional Ethics: Transparency is the best policy- Institutional Review Boards (IRB): informed consent; special populations (juveniles, prisoners, etc.)—Colleges/universities- The Belmont Report- Principle of Respect for Persons (respect respondents)- Principle of Beneficence (no harm to participants)- Principle of Justice (benefits and burdens should be shared)Examples of Ethical Problems- The Brajuha case: ASA code of ethics—Weinstein Decision- Shield Laws laws that protect researchers from having to give up their sources (field notes)- The Ofshe Case: synanon- Organizations and individuals can sue researchers for slander and libel - The Hutchinson Case: Golden Fleece Award- Hutchinson received golden fleece award (showed that he supported communism)- Hutchinson sued McCarthy for defamation of character, went to Supreme Court- The Scarce Case- You need to approve all of your research with a universities IRB if youare a studentHow to avoid Ethical Problems- Be careful in your research design- Consider alternative methodologies that may present less risk to you and your respondentsThe Experimental Model- The experimental model as a research design—the gold standard in research- Developed in the natural sciences experimentation in the social science began in psychology- Perceptual psychology- Behaviorism- Mental Measurement- Human Factors- Experimentation is best suited for 2 of the 4 purposes of research: explanation and evaluation- Topics in Experimental CCJS Research: effectiveness of…- Arrests for domestic violence- Drug education programs (DARE)- Correctional bootcamps, etc.Three Steps to Establishing Causality—Linking IV and DV- Demonstrate that a relationship exists between key variables- Specify the time order of the relationship: IV comes first, because that is whatis being altered or manipulated- Eliminate rival causal factors—expose spurious relationships- 2 types of rival causal factors:o Internal Validity: Did variable X (IV) produce a change in variable Y (DV)?o External Validity: can we generalize to other populations or settings?- Internal Causal Factors:--variables related to internal validityo Experimental and Quasi-experimental designs for Research (Campbell and Stanley, 1963) History has an impact Maturation Testing Instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Bias Experimental Mortality (people dropping from research) Selection-Maturation


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UMD CCJS 300 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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