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What is Psychology? PSY101 Introduction to Psychology Spring 2014 SUNY at BuffaloWhat is Psychology? ! Psychology definedWhat is Psychology? ! Scientific Method defined !"as"the"set"of"procedures"for"gathering"and"interpre,ng"objec,ve"informa,on"in"a"way"that"minimizes"error"and"yields"dependable"generaliza,ons;"orderly"steps"used"to"analyze"and"solve"problems.TextWhat is Psychology? ! Behavior defined !"as"ac,ons"by"which"an"organism"adjusts"or"responds"to"its"enviro nment*observabl e:"smili ng,"crying,"running,"etc.*not"directly"observable:"loving,"desiring,"contempla,ng,"etc.What is Psychology? Psychologists"examine"(through"observa,on)"what"the"individual"does,"and"how"the"individual"goes"about"doing"it.What is Psychology?What is Psychology? ! Mental processes (workings"of"mind)"play"a"cri,cal"role"in"behavior.!thinking,"planning,"and"reasoning"are"a"few"examples"of"mental"processes"that"cannot"be"directly"observed,"but"they’re"important"for"our"understanding"of"behavior!researchers"have"devised"techniques"for"assessing"these"processes"without"viola,ng"the"standards"of"the"Scien,fic"Method! Behavioral Data defined Describing What Happens as"reports"of"observa,ons"about"behavior,"and"condi,ons"under"which"behavior"occurs"or"chan gesExplaining What Happens Explana,ons"look"to"explain"how"behavior"worksMost"behavior"is"influ enced"by"a"combina,on"of "factors:!internal"factors"(e.g."gene,cs)Predicting What Will Happen !Based"on"an"understanding"of"the"ways"events"relate"to"each"other!suggests"what"mechanisms"link"those"events"to"certain"predictors!specific"condi,ons!external"and"internal"in"which"we"predict"behaviors"will"change!predic,ons"shoul d"b e"worded"such"that"they"can"be"tested"and"rejected"if"evidence"does"not"support"what"has"been"predictedHistorical Foundations ! Hermann Ebbinghaus (German psychologist, 1850-1909) !“Pyschology"has"a"long"past,"but"onl y"a"short"hi story.”!"Known"for"his"research"on"memory,"learning"and "il lu sory"effectsQues,ons"asked"long"ago"are"being"answered"today"by"innova,ve"observa,onal"designs"and"advances"in "technologyHistorical Foundations ! Plato (Greek philosopher, 427-347 B.C.) !"Rooted"in"the"na,vist"view"that"people"begin"life"with"mental"structures"that"constrain"experience!"How"does"the"mind"work?!"What"is"the"nature"of"free"will?Historical Foundations ! Aristotle (Greek philosopher, 384-322 B.C.) !"Rooted"in"the"empiricist"view"that"people"begin"li fe"with"their"mind"as"a"blank"tablet!"“It"is"the"mark"of"an"educated"mind"to"be"able"to"entertain"a"thought"without"accep,ng"it.”Historical Foundations ! John Locke (English physician and philosopher, 1632-1704) !"Extensively"ar,culated"the"empiricist"view"(fol lowing"Aristotle)!"Believed"that"we"begin"with"bl ank"min ds"o r"tabuula"rasa;"minds"acquire"informa,on"through"experience!"We"only"know"what"we"have"come"to"know"through"experienceHistorical Foundations ! Immanuel Kant (German philosopher, 1724-1804) !Extensively"ar,culated"the"na,vist"view"(following"Plato)!Believed"that"the"minds"begins"equipped"with"mental"structures"that"provide"constraints"on"how"individuals"experience"the"world!"we"learn"through"experience"but"we"are"innately"influence"by"structures"in"the"mindHistorical Foundations ! Empiricist vs. Nativist !"Later"we"will"discuss"this"theore,cal"debate"i n"the"form"of"Nature"vs."Nurture!"Early"philosophers"such"as"Aristotle"(late"Locke)"and"Plato"(later"Kant)"influence"the"way"we"think"about"these"concepts;"they"helped"shape"the"ques,ons"we"ask"in"the"field"of"psychologyHistorical Foundations ! Researchers began to apply lab techniques from other sciences (e.g., Physiology, Physics) to the questions being asked by philosophers ! Toward the end of the 19th century, the field of Psychology emerged as its own disciplineHistorical Foundations ! Wilhelm Wundt (German psychologist and physiologist, 1832-1920) !Founded"the"first"formal"experimental"psychology"laboratory;"applied"scien,fic"techniq ue"to"philosophical"inquiry!interested"in"sensa,on"and"percep,on,"as"well"as"the",me!course"of"mental"processesHistorical Foundations ! William James (American psychologist and philosopher, 1842-1910) ! Full text: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/James/Principles/index.htm !"Wrote"“The"Principles"of"Pyschol ogy”"(1890);"respected"as"one"of"the"most"influen,al"texts"ever"wriOen"in"the"field!concerned"with"issues"such"as"brain"func,on,"consci ousn ess,"aOen,on,"memory,"sensa,on"and"percep,on,"reasoning,"free"will,"etc.Historical Foundations ! G. Stanley Hall (American psychologist, 1844-1924) !studi ed"un der"Will iam"James"at"Harvard"Univ.!"In"1883,"began"first"American"pyschological"laboratory"at"John"Hopkins!"1892!founded"the"APA"(American"Pyschological"Associa,on)Historical Foundations ! Issues arise when new fields emerge: " Which topics are properly classified as a matter for the field of Psychology? " Which methods are appropriate for psychological research? " What are the boundaries of objectivity?Perspectives on Psychology ! A psychological perspective influences… !"…"what"ques,ons"are"asked"!"…how"ques,ons"are"implemented!…"which"methods"are"used"to"inves,gate!…which"conclusions"are"drawn"from"observa,onsPerspec,ves"can"be"blended"and"molded"to"enhance"the"way"psychologists"approach"the"fieldPerspectives on Psychology ! Psychodynamic perspective !Behavior"is"expl ain ed"in "terms"of:!inherited"ins,ncts!Biological"drive!aOempts"to"resolve"conflicts!Focus"is"on"the"un conscious."The"main"purpose"of"ac,on"is"to"reduce"the"tension"linked"to:—>"depriva,on—>physiological"arousal—>the"conflicts"that"arise"from"variance"between"personal"needs"and"the"demands"of"society.Perspectives on Psychology ! Psychodynamic perspective (continued) " The main purpose of action is !depriva,on!physiological"arousal!the"conflicts"that"arise"from"variance"between"personal"needs"and"the"demands"of"societyto"reduce"the"tension"linked"to:Perspectives on Psychology ! Psychodynamic perspective (continued) " Sigmund Freud (Austrian neurologist and psychologist, 1856-1939) !"Developed"psychodynamic"model"for"explaining"the"principles"of"mo,va,on!"Freud"believed"that"human"nature"may"be"driven"by"unconscious"mo,vesPerspectives on Psychology ! Psychodynamic perspective (continued) " Criticisms: !"Inconsistent"or"weak"op,ons"for"measuring!"Difficult"to"replicate"accounts"of"the"unconsci


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