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TERMSRhetoric:· Isocrates: “…that power which, of all the faculties which belong to the nature of man, is the source of most of our blessings.”· Plato: “rhetoric is the knack of producing pleasure in the audience”· Aristotle: “Let rhetoric be [defined as] ability, in each case to see the available means of persuasion”· Cicero: “speech designed to persuade’· Kenneth Burke: “the use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols”· Campbell & Burkholder: “persuasive discourses, written and oral, encountered face-to-face or through the electronic or print media, that seek to affect attitudes and actions”· Richard Weaver: “we have no sooner uttered words than we have given impulse to other people to look at the world, or some small part of it, our way”· Lloyd Bitzer: “rhetoric is a mode of altering reality, not by the dialect application of energy to objects, but by the creation of discourse which changes reality through the mediation of thought and action”%Rhetorical Criticism: analyzing and explaining the persuasive functions of public discourse· Elements of Criticismo Describe: What do I see? What is it made of? What are its parts?o Interpret: What does it do? How does it work?o Evaluate: How well does it do it? Is it good/bad? Likable/ objectionable? Etc.Rhetorical Situation:Bitzer: contexts in which speaker/writer creates rhetorical discourseo Exigence: urgency, immediate problem needed to be solved, able to be solved using rhetorico Audience: must be able to make changeo Constraints: negative aspects that hold speaker backo Resources: positive aspects that will give speaker credibility/helpo Persuasive Field: all other messages/events going on that might impact rhetorico Medium: how message is being transmittedParts of Speech:· Nouns: words that name person, place, thing, or abstraction (ex. Love, justice…)o Common: describes one or more members of a class of things (ex. elk, flower, movie)o Collective: give name to a group of things (ex. flock, squad, audience)o Concrete: identifies something perceivable by the senses (ex. bottle, fence, tree)o Abstract: name a quality or idea (ex. shame, anger, virtue)o Proper: names, capitalized (ex. New York, Washington, Obama)· Verbs: word or group of words that asserts something about the subject of a sentence; describe an action or express an identity or state of beingo Intransitive: does not need a direct object or complement to complete meaning of sentence ( ex. John fell. )o Transitive: requires a direct object or a complement to complete sentence (ex. “John hit the ball.” – CANNOT have just “John hit.”o Finite: always marked for tense and agree with the subject or noun phrase (ex. “Joe went to college to avoid the draft” – “went” is finite – agrees with subjecto Non-Finite: Not marked for tense (ex. “John wanted to jump off a cliff”)§ Infinitives: add “to” before verb – “ I would like to respond”§ Participles: add “ing” to verb acting like adj. – “smiling, losing, winning”§ Gerunds: add “ing” to a verb BUT functions as noun (“Learning is easy.”)· Adjectives: describe or limit a noun or pronoun· Adverb: modify verbs, other adverbs and in some cases adjectives· Prepositions: indicates the relation of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence (“he put the coat in the closet)· Conjunctions: join words, phrases and clauseso Coordinate: joins words, phrases and clauses of equal importance or rank (ex. and, but, or, for) FANBOYSo Subordinate: connect a subordinate clause with the main clause of a sentence (ex. after, as, because, before, if, in, order, that, since, though, unless, until, when, where, while)· Subject: identifies an entity about which something is asserted· Predicate: make a comment about the subject, provides info about the subject or describes what the subject did or did not do etc.· Objecto Direct: do something to direct objects (The owner fired the coach)o Indirect: indicate whom or for whom something is done (she gave the dog the popcorn)Types of Sentences· Simple: one independent clause· Compound: two independent clauses· Complex: one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses· Compound-complex: two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses· Independent Clause: “John went to the gym”· Dependent Clause: “John went to the gym after folding laundry” Noun style vs. Verb style· Noun style: contains a lot of “to be” verbs (was, is, were, are, am), A LOT of prepositions, dull, monotonous, repetitive· Verb Style: active verbs, faster pace, featured actionParataxis vs. Hypotaxis· Parataxis: no ranking (ex. I came, I saw, I conquered)· Hypotaxis: creates ranking through the relationship between dependent clauses to independent, all complex and compound-complex sentences (ex. Because I came, then I saw, and I conquered.)Asyndeton vs. Polysyndeton· Asyndeton: few connectors· Polysndeton: many connectors (ex. and)Small-scale stylistic patterns· Metaphor: Involves talking about one thing in the terms of another. A comparison between two things, doesn’t use “like” or “as”· Simile: comparison with “like” or “as”· Hyperbole: extreme exaggeration · Personification: giving human characteristics to non-human things · Assonance: the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or sentences· Parallelism: repetition of a grammatical structureo “we have seen the state of our Union in the endurance of rescuers, working past exhaustion. We’ve seen the unfurling of flags, the light of candles, the giving of blood, the saying of prayers”· Alliteration: repetition of consonant sounds ex. “Lucky and the left out…” “powerful glue that connect elements without logical relationship” - Lanham· Chiasmus: A-->B, B--->A . Describes an inverted repetition pattern. Particularly useful to support the idea of reversal. “If guns are outlawed, only outlaws will have guns”. · Diacope: repetition of a word/phrase with one or two intervening words “Boys will be boys”· %Anadiplosis: is when the

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