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STRC 2112- Strategies and Tactics of PersuasionDr. Guillermo Caliendo1/23/13Chapter 1seven faces of persuasion-interactive media- media in which the receiver is able to actively participate in the influence processcultural diversity- the increasing numbers of persons from other cultural backgrounds, races, ethnicities, sexual preferences, educational levels, political and religious beliefs, etc.propaganda/advocacy-“response-ability”- ability to wisely and critically respond to the persuasion you encounter and to make wise choices and ethical decisions when you both process and craft persuasiondoublespeak- deliberate miscommunication and which the American Heritage Dictionary defines as “evasive, ambiguous, high-flown language designed to deceive”scams-identity theft-self-protection-efficacy- our culture wants to see the results of its and our efforts, particularly if there’s a group effort involvedefficiency- a costs-versus-resulting-benefits kind of dichotomy that judges results by comparing the efforts and various other investments (cost) made against the relative gains or recognition (benefits) achieved on the part of the audiencecommon ground- shared beliefs, values, and interests between persuaders and persuadees that could be established by all of the tacticsenthymemes- a form of argument in which the first major premise in the proof remains unstated by the persuader and, instead, is supplied by the audienceidentification- Burke believed that if receivers feel they are being spoken to in their own language, and hear references to their own beliefs and values, they will develop a sense of identification with the persuader, believing the persuader is like themPersuasion in Today’s Changing Worldsort information and evaluate options/choicespersuasion is used to prompt our voting, purchasing, donating, etc.Persuasive Processengage in “defensive listening”-critical thinkingpay attention to the effects/influences of electronic data and interactive media-ex: Social Networks Media (SNM)media-rich cultures make it easier to influence others-voice our opinions beyond friends and familyethical decisions-what information is passed on/reliableconsider cultural preferences-race; ethnicity; sexual orientation; class-work a balancepay attention to propaganda vs. advocacypropaganda: ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately to further one’s cause, etc.advocacy: pleading for, supporting, recommendingmay be motivated from moral principles or to protect an asset of interestPropagandait is ideological or it promotes a belief system-the one and only beliefuses mass media to spread it’s beliefconceals it’s source-unethical advocacy of an ideology that uses emotion to persuade/move peoplePersuasion and it’s Ethical Challenges“Pinocchio Nation” (Donaldson & Wamberg, 2011)there is unprecedented lying, unethical decision-making-ex: corporations, banks, accounting firms, Religious institutions*critical consumption of informationHow do we process information?-Aristotle (ethos-moral standing/character, pathos-emotion, logos-logic)-elaboration likelihood model (ELM): a theory that serves as an organizational model of persuasion and has resulted in significant changes in the way theorists view persuasionTwo Channels to Process InformationCentral Processing route-used for complex/important information-information that needs to be studied/researchedPeripheral Processing Route-less important information-appeals to the eyes and ears*sexPersuasion and Cultural Interactiona balance between you and othersprotection against doublespeak, scams-doublespeak: evasive, ambiguous, high flown language designed to deceive-jargon: highly specialized/technical languageex: friendly fire; ethnic cleansing, etc.-scam: convinces a person that a plan/project is credible(credibility/ethos are usually processed in the peripheral channel)*do not assume meaning when communication with each otherDefining Persuasion: Aristotle to Elaboration LikelihoodAristotle-ancient Greeks called/referred to persuasion as Rhetoric-artistic proof: choices of evidence, organization, style, language-inartistic proof: not controlled by speakerex: occasion, time allotted, fact/statistic-persuasion succeeds or failsproofs: ethos, pathos, and logos1/30/13Chapter 3- Traditional, Artistic, and Humanistic Approaches to PersuasionHumanistic and Persuasive Approaches-Framing Persuasion/thinking:-Aristotle:-Context/purpose-one approach does not fit all situationsex: market segments/target audiences-Aristotle looked at persuasion in:-Forensic discourse-Epideictic (celebratory/eulogy) discourse-Deliberative (like politics) discourse-context imposes certain restrictions or expectations-match appropriate persuasive tactic to the contextAudience Adaptation and Common Universe of Ideas-persuaders should promote common ideas/valuesex:happiness, independence, prosperity, pleasure, friendship, etc.-maxim/saying can create that sense of commonalityTypes of Proof-ethos, pathos, logosethos: words, images, vocal tone: create a moodpathos: speaker-audience shared feelings-emotionally charged language*be careful with over the top languagelogos: forms of reasoning/logic-deductive, inductive, analogicaldeduction: assumed general and possible truth-when you use deduction you have a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion-major premise: “A large percentage of fraternity members drink excessively-minor premise: John is a fraternity brother. Therefore, John drinks excessively.*when you hear a major premise, you should question it and the reasoning. That is when you stop and possibly arrive at a different conclusion.-major premise: Women are likely to get in a car accident-minor premise: susan is a driver-conclusion: Susan is likely to get into an accident.-major premise: Fat people are not sexy-minor premise: Mrs. X is fat-conclusion: Mrs. X is not sexy-Deduction:Usually, the person accepts the major premise, and is already assumed/assimilated into the normal way of thinking. You must ask questions about how the major premise came about.-Induction: look at different cases and examples, and then arrive to a conclusion-Analogical: comparison between two thingsPre-used Argumentative Forms-Topoi:common forms of arguments-arguments deal with “the degree” of something, the “more or less”ex: Is candidate A more or less trustworthy than candidate B? Who was the best singer, player, etc.?-Past Fact: has an event really happened? Did a


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