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INTRODUCTION 1. 4 Sub-disciplines of Anthropology? a. Biological b. Sociocultural c. Linguistic d. Archaeology 2. What are the six big events of human evolution? a. Bipedalism b. Nonhoning Chewing c. Speech d. Hunting e. Material Culture and Tools f. Domesticated Foods 3. What is the scientific method? What are the steps of the scientific method? a. Empirical testing of possible answers about natural phenomena that can be repeated & verified i. Problem: observe & question ii. Research: find out about topic iii. Hypothesis: predict outcome iv. Experiment: test hypothesis v. Analysis: record results vi. Conclusion: hypothesis supported? vii. Publish: communicate findings THE HISTORY OF EVOLUTIONARY THOUGHT 1. How do we define evolution? a. Change in frequency in genes or traits in a population over multiple generations 2. What did the Ancient Greeks mean by “immutability”? a. Fixity, stasis, lack of change; emphasize mind and natural philosophy 3. What two events impacted Darwin enough to finally publish his work in 1859? What was the title of his first book? a. He received a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace containing his belief on the theory of evolution, which was very similar to Darwin’s.b. Darwin presented a joint paper at a professional meeting so that he and Wallace could share credit; however, he realized that if he didn't publish soon, he would get no credit for the idea c. First book: “On the Origin of Species” 4. Who were the following people and what did they contribute to our understanding of evolutionary thought? a. Charles Darwin: English naturalist and geologist; best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory; established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors b. James Hutton: calculated Earth’s age as millions of years; provided geologic evidence necessary for calculating time span of evolution c. Charles Lyell: rediscovered and reinforced Hutton’s ideas; provided more geologic evidence d. Robert Hook: proved that fossils are organisms’ remains; revealed that fossils would provide the history of past life e. Georges Cuvier: extensively studied fossils; revealed much variation in the fossil record f. John Ray: pioneered taxonomy based on physical appearance; created the first scientific classification of plants and animals g. Carolus Linnaues: wrote Systems of Nature; presented the binomial nomenclature taxonomy of plants and animals h. Thomas Malthus: founded demography: only some will find enough food to survive; provided the concept of characteristics advantageous for survival i. Thomas Huxley: English biologist, known as “Darwin’s Bulldog” for promoting his theory of evolution by natural selection; contributed to evolutionary theory was the concept that humans evolved from an apelike animal j. Samuel Wilberforce: one of Darwin’s loudest critics including clergy members and scientists; Oxford Evolution Debate included Wilberforce and Huxley k. Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck: posited characteristics acquired via inheritance (Lamarckism); provided first serious model of physical traits’ passing from parents to offspring l. Erasmus Darwin: also posited characteristics (determined by wants and needs) acquired via inheritance; advanced the notion that physical changes occurred in the past; poet and Darwin’s grandfatherm. Gregor Mendel: father of modern genetics, was a Christian monk by profession by a scientist by nature; observations provided the foundation for our understanding of genetics n. Alfred Russell Wallace: English naturalist and explorer Alfred Russel Wallace, wrote letter to Darwin about theory of evolution by means of natural selection o. Thomas Hunt Morgan: awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, largely demonstrating that chromosomes carry genetic material in the form of genes GENETICS 1. How does DNA replicate itself? a. By the attachment of complementary enzymes to base pairings; these form the double helix strands of genetic material (translocation and transcription) 2. What are three ways in which chromosomes can be altered? What are examples of these? a. Duplication: error during cell division where region is duplicated repeatedly in same chromosome i. Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21): female non-disjunction or male translocation; 1:700; impaired physical and mental development; 30 years extended life compared to other non-disjunctions ii. Fragile X Syndrome: female non-disjunction or male translocation; 1:1,500 males and 1:2,500 females; impaired mental development; normal x has 29 GCC repeats; while fragile x has 70 b. Deletion: portion of one chromosome lost during unequal cross-over or breakage during meiosis i. Cri du Chat (5p Deletion) Syndrome: partial deletion in chromosome 5 (paternal origin); 1:50,000 live births; “cry of the cat”; behavior and growth disorders; impaired cognitive, speech and motor development ii. Inversion: portion of genetic material is exchanged with in a single chromosome c. Translocation: part of one non-homologous chromosome is joined to another i. Robertsonian: 13-21; infertility and cancer forms ii. Myelogenous leukemia: 22-9; increase and unregulated growth of myeloid cells in bone marrow (cancer of whiteblood cells); 1:100,000 age onset treatable but 4 year prognosis 3. What is mitosis? a. Production of two identical daughter cells with a full complement of paired chromosomes; 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs 4. What is meiosis? a. Production of four identical daughter cells, each with a single set of unpaired chromosomes; 4 haploid cells (half DNA); Meiosis I and II; I: mitosis, II: haploid division 5. What is the Law of Independent Assortment? a. Asserts that traits linked to different chromosomes are inherited independently from one another (hair color is independently inherited from eye color) b. Allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes; this means that traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another 6. What is the Law of Segregation? a. Mendel’s First Law; which asserts that the two alleles for any given gene are inherited, one from each parent; during gamete production, only one of the two alleles will be present in each ovum or sperm b. Allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization 7. What are the two steps of protein synthesis? a. Transcription:


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UCF ANT 2511 - INTRODUCTION

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