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i Gvpt170 Midterm ReviewI. Politics: The delegation of powers to a smaller more informed group to make decisions to lower transaction costs, and hopefully lower conformity costs.Collective Action: The act of like minded people coming together to make decisions to achieve goals.Problems with collective action:· Collective action is an issue because it is very difficult for a large amount of people to all agree on the same exact thing. Coordination is an issue because it is the process of getting a group of people organized and deciding on a course of action.· Cooperation is getting those same people to contribute and not to Free Ride.· Free Riding is some people will want to reap the benefits that go along with a group but they do not want to actually do anything to benefit the group.· Tragedy of the Commons is when collective good is squandered due to excessive66self-interest. Ex. People littering because they don’t think that their one piece of litter is a big deal.SOLUTIONS TO COLLECTIVE ACTION PROBLEMS:· Voluntary cooperation (Low rate of success)· Privatize (Delegating land to specific property owners rather than a communal farm)· Government intervention incentive (Regulate)Costs of Collective Action· Transaction Costs- The “cost” it takes to collectively make a decision. The time ittakes, effort, and resources.· Conformity Costs- The amount a person has to do something they do not want to because of a collective decision. How much a person doesn’t like the decision.· T and C costs are inversely related.Constitution- establishes a government’s institutions and the procedures they must follow to reach and enforce collective agreementsDelegation- A process of limiting collective action problems by delegating power from the principals (citizens) to agents (Government workers).· Limits transaction costs because it relies on a smaller more informed group of people to make decisions.· Setbacks could be:1. Hidden action or agenda (agency loss)2. Madison’s Dilemma “You must first enable the government to control the governed: and the next place oblige it to control itself.” (must not become too powerful and forget the peoples best interest)Terms: · Agenda Control- focusing the topics/trimming down what is available to others.· Authority- the actual ability to make a decision based on your position if office.· Power- the officeholders influence amongst other officeholders.· Bargaining- the action of negotiating.· Compromise- conceding some preferences for the betterment of the group.· Coalition- People who do not agree come to a common course of action for their own distinct reasons.- Private vs. Public Goods- Private goods are items people buy and consume themselves in a marketplace, while public goods everyone helps supply such as thru tax dollars and are available to everyone- Coordination- members of the group deciding what they want, what they are prepared to contribute, and how to organize with others- delegation- individuals or groups authorizing someone to make and implement decisions for them- direct democracy- direct rule by the people in which they are involved directly in collective action making- focal point-identified focus by group to coordinate energy in achieving common purpose- government- procedures + institutions that rule people- initiative- if people meet the requisite for number of petitions then a proposal will be put on a ballot (form of direct democracy)- institutions- organization that manages conflicts, helps find solutions, makes and enforces collective agreements- offices- are what institutions consist of and confer on their specific authority and responsibilities- parliamentary government- fuses the executive and legislative branch and arenot checked by powerful judicial vetoes, instead of people electing president parliament elects the executives known as the cabinet and one of the member acts as a prime minister- plurality- the candidate receiving the most votes wins regardless of whether or not a majority is reached (favored by states when determining rules for electing members of Congress)- politicians- elected pro whos job it is to convinces people with differing views to join in common action- politics- process through which individuals and groups reach agreement on a course of common or collective action- even if they disagree on the intended goals of that action- preferences- individuals’ choices, reflecting economic, religous, ethnic and other valued interests- Prisoner’s Dilemma- when individuals decide that @even though they support a collective undertaking, they are better off going with an activity that rewards them as as an individual even though it hurts the collective goals ex-(man woman in jail with little evidence against them could just keep quiet, but worrythe other will take a deal so they both become little rat bitches and fuck each others shit up ruining their collective goals of being found not guilty)- privatizing- to prevent a common resource from being over exploited (tragedy of the commons aka tragedy of the good for nothing whorebags) by tying the benefit of its consumption to its cost ex-( communal farming privatized by giving each family its own land to take care of)- referendum- type of direct democracy in which state legislature proposes a change to the state’s laws or constitution that all the voters then vote on- regulation- setting up rules limiting access to a common resource and monitoring and penalizing those who violate them (solution to tragedy of commons)- representative government- citizens select govt. officials who act as agents and deliberate and commit them to collective enterprises- republic- form of democracy in which power is vested in elected representatives- tyranny- ruling power exploits authority and allows little popular control- veto- presidents power bills passed by congress, can be overridden by two-thirds vote in each houseConstitutionsArticles of Confederation:- The national government's powers were specific and definite. States feared large central government.- On paper the national government had the power to: @set up a postal department, to request donations from the states, to raise

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UMD GVPT 170 - Midterm Review

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