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Development Part TwoPowerPoint PresentationSlide 3Slide 4Slide 5Slide 6Slide 7Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Slide 12Slide 13Slide 14Slide 15Erik Erikson and Lifespan DevelopmentSlide 17Slide 18Slide 19Slide 20Slide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24Slide 25Attachment Deprivation: Harlow Monkey StudiesReared Monkeys in isolation or with a surrogate motherAfter 6 months sent back to colonyIsolated monkeys showed indifference, were terrified or were aggressive with other monkeys, failed to form relationships with opposite sex, were abusive to their offspringAttachment and Contact Comfort: hypothesized that animals/humans need warmth, comfort as a primary needMoving doll scared the monkey who ran back to the cloth mother for protectionDevelopmental Theories as Stage TheoriesIndividuals must progress through stages in a particular order, stages build on each otherProgress is strongly related to ageDevelopment is marked by discontinuities that result in dramatic transitionsJean Piaget and Cognitive DevelopmentHow a child thinks, including reasoning, remembering and problem solvingSchemas: models about how the world worksDevelopment involves two processes: Assimilation: how to fit new information into the present system of knowledgeAccommodation: existing structures don’t fit so a child must develop new schemasPiaget’s Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentSensorimotor (birth-2 years)Infants learn through concrete motor actions; by touching, tasting and smellingAccomplish object permanance (6 months)Develop capacity for mental imageryOrganize information into categoriesIncreasingly able to use purposeful activityPreoperational: (2-7 years)Gradually improve in mental imagesCan pretendAction OrientedDevelop representational thoughtHave NOT mastered conservation: basic properties of an object remain stable even if superficial properties changeFlaws of thinking in Preoperational ChildrenCentration: focus on one (central) aspect of a problem and neglect other aspectsIrreversibility: inability to envision reversing an actionEgocentrism: thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another person’s point of viewConcrete Operations: (7-11)The child performs operations on tangible objects and eventsShow increased flexibility in thinkingCan begin to see cause and effectMasters reversibility and decentrationCan retrace thoughtsMore successful with hierarchical constructsFormal Operations (12-up)Begin to see abstract reasoningUnderstand metaphor and deductive reasoningBecome more systematic in thinkingCan discuss moral valuesPiaget criticized for underestimating children’s abilities, not focusing enough on individual differences; much research still supports his theories/beliefsAdolescenceAdolescent growth spurt: rapid growth in height and weight as the body is preparing for hormonal shifts/ maturationAsynchrony: certain body parts grow at different speeds leading to lack of proportionPrefrontal Cortex: final maturation of the prefrontal cortex takes place in late adolescence and young adulthood. This area is responsible for organization, planning, emotional regulation and impulse controlPuberty: sexual functions reach maturity; impacts social and emotional development Menarche: first occurrence of menstruation Spermarche: first occurrence of ejaculationEarly maturing males have positive self-conceptsEarly maturing females: greater chance of depression, anxiety, eating disordersImpact of early puberty—associated with obesity, higher BMIElkindAdolescent Egocentrism: way of thinking the world is focused on themselves Imaginary Audience: belief that everyone in the environment is concerned with the behavior/appearance of him/herselfPersonal Fable: View him/herself as somehow unique or heroicInvincibility Fable: false sense that he/she can’t be harmedStorm and Stress: more modulated as not as frequent as once thoughFor issues related to finances, education and career, religion and politics today’s adolescents are more similar to their parentsPeer Relationships: provide a source of social support, a framework for negotiating conflict and compromise, allow for social comparison, define code/cultureErik Erikson and Lifespan DevelopmentTheory of lifespan development. Believes each stage involves a psychosocial crisis: a transition which is organized around social relationships and that personality is determined by these stagesKohlberg studied moral development using the Heinz dilemma. Found various stages of moral development based on responses to this and similar situations.Lifespan Issues in DevelopmentOur country is getting olderLiving more productive lives for more yearsMore career shifts seen in the populationIntellectual Functioning and Age:Fluid Intelligence: (basic information processing skills) is more likely to decline with ageCrystallized Intelligence: application accumulated remains more stableLanger and Rodin study: Maintaining a sense of control over one’s life leads to greater psychological well-being in the elderlyWays to promote Healthy AgingPromote companionshipTake vitamin supplementsStay active physically and intellectuallyVolunteer or workMaintain positive relationships with family/friendsHave a positive attitudeDecrease sun exposureDecrease smoking, drinkingBe a health care consumer; ask questionsExplore medication interactionsFind faithRecent programs supporting the elderly and children in

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