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Ch.11: Social Psychology(Why do people do what they do) 10/11/12 2:10 PM Social Psychology-How people think about, influence, and relate to other people. Social Psychologists study human behavior. Areas of Social Psychology • Social Cognition • Social Behavior • Social Influence • Intergroup relations • Close relationships Social Cognition- How people select, interpret, remember, and use social information. Areas of Social Cognition • Person Perception • Attribution • The Self • Attitudes o Person Perception- How do we think about other people. Forming impressions about others. Person Perception • Question: o How do we form impressions of other people? • Answer: o The power of the first impression • The “Primacy Effect” • Stereotype- generalization about a group’s characteristics that does not account for individual variability. • Question: o Why do we stereotype? o Answer:  Biologically built to categorize • “Shortcut” – easier • Self-fulfilling prophecy- Expectations cause individuals to act in ways that make the expectations come true.• Stereotype threat- Type of self-fulfilling prophecy in which anxiety about being negatively stereotyped actually causes underperformance. • Attractiveness- Human physical features that others rate as high in objective physical appeal. • Question: o Who is attractive and who is not? • Answer: o Average is “Beautiful” • Question: o What stereotypes do we have about beautiful people? • Answer: o Beautiful is “good” Social Cognition Areas of Social Cognition Person Perception Attribution The Self Attitudes Attribution- Determining why people do what they do. Attribution: Attributional theories Internal vs. External causes Stable vs. Unstable causes Controllable vs. Uncontrollable causes, Question: • How do you explain another person’s behavior? Answer: • We typically attribute others’ behavior to internal causes, even though that is not always accurate. • Fundamental Attribution Error- People tend to overestimate the importance of stable, internal traits and underestimate the importance of temporary, external situations when seeking explanations for others’ behavior.• Self-serving Bias- We often attribute our own behavior to whichever explanation benefits us the most. • False Consensus Effect- Overestimation of the degree to which everyone else thinks and acts as we do. The Self-How we view ourselves. • Self-esteem-The degree to which we have positive or negative feelings about ourselves. • Question: o Which individual do you think has higher self-esteem? • Subject A: o Has positive illusions about herself. Tends to have a self-serving bias.(Higher self-esteem) • Subject B: o Is more realistic about her good and bad characteristics. • Self-image-The degree to which we believe others have positive or negative feelings about ourselves. • Self-efficacy- Belief that one has the competence to complete a goal or a task • Social comparisons- Evaluating one’s own thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and abilities in relation to others. • Question: o Which of the following do you believe will influence a person’s self-esteem? • Answer: o Self-image o Self-efficacy o Degree of social comparison o All three influence self-esteem Attitudes - Our feelings or opinions about people, objects, and ideas. • Question: • Can attitudes predict behavior? • Answer: • Sometimes • When attitude is strong. • When person is made aware of attitude. • When person has vested interest.• Question: • Can behavior predict attitudes? • Answer: • Sometimes • Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Self-perception Theory • Cognitive dissonance theory • “mismatch between beliefs and behavior” • Self-perception theory • “derive beliefs from behavior” • Determine our beliefs and attitudes by looking back at our own behavior. • Example: • Foot-in-the-door technique • Question: • Can you change someone’s attitude? • Answer: • Sometimes • If you are trained in the art of persuasion… • Elements of Persuasion • The Source • “characteristics of the communicator” • The Message • “content and style” • The Medium • “venue” • The Audience • “characteristics of your target” Areas of Social Psychology Social Cognition Social Behavior Social Influence Intergroup relations Close relationships Social Behavior • Altruism• Unselfish interest in helping another person. • Question: • Why do people help other people? • Answer: • Reciprocity • “Doing unto others as they will (hopefully) do unto you.” • Egoism • “Doing unto others because it somehow benefits ourselves.” • Factors that Influence helping behavior: • Mood • “happy = helping” • Empathy • “seeing ourselves” • The Bystander Effect • “Let someone else do it…” Social Influence • Conformity • Changing one’s behavior to align with the group or group standard. • Asch’s Conformity Study • Which line in exhibit 2 is the same length as the line in exhibit 1? • When all others in the group picked the same “incorrect” answer, volunteer participants chose to conform with the group 35% of the time! • Question: • Why do we conform? • Answer: • Informational Social Influence • Normative Social Influence • Informational Social Influence • The influence people have on us because we want to be right. • Normative Social influence • The influence people have on us because we want to be liked. • Obedience • Behavior that complies with the specific demands of an authority figure. • Milgram’s Obedience Study• Question: • Would you harm someone if an authority figure told you to do so? • Answer: • Two-thirds of participants did so in the Milgram study. Intergroup Relations • Deindividuation • Being part of a group reduces one’s sense of personal responsibility. • Example: • Mob mentality • “just one of the herd” • Social Contagion • The spread of behavior, emotions and ideas. • Examples: • Fads • yawning • laughing • Group performance • How do you perform when others are present? • Clap if you perform worse when others are present. • Clap if you perform better when others are present. • Clap if it


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KSU PSYC 11762 - Chapter 11

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