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History 202A- John Donovan CSULAChristopher Columbus was aiming to reach the Indies however when he landed on America he had thought that he did land in the Indies and called the first people that he found to be the Indians.Less nutrition, changes in climate led to the death ‘driven to extinction’ of the mammothsThere was no concept then that the species could go extinct. During the Louisiana Purchase when Lewis and Clark went to go explore and attempted to find mammoths they were already extinct.Indians- Cahokia Illinois (Indian settlement) *near St. Louis there were over 25,000 people living there- One tribe, the Cherokee, developed their own written language.- Hopewell Ohio was also an Indian settlement.- Indians were very charitable - An Indian, Sitting Bull, was paid money and gave away his money every time he saw poor people. - The French offered that if an Indian left their settlements and joined a French area then they would be allowed French citizenship.- Indians were thought of as lost tribes of Israel, Jewish, etc. until the early 19th century.Aztecs- The Aztec, Meshika also practiced cannibalism and human sacrifices - The tribes around the Aztec were tired of dealing with them and assisted Cortes (who had 600 men, diseases, guns) in downing the Aztecs- The hearts of the sacrifices were ripped out; the limbs were cut and carried off to be eaten. The bodies were kicked down the stairs of the sacrificial temple (?) the limbs were sauced with pepper and eaten.It was believed that if there were no human sacrifices then the sun would not appear the next day.- La Noche Triste ‘The sad Night’ (The Aztecs did not have a concept of fighting at night) some of the Spanish wereattempting to escape from capture at night but some were caught and sacrificed the same night.Renaissance Time- Many people already did believe that the world was round even during Columbus’ time.- Evidence of Vikings (in North America) - left medallions, etc. *some people argue that Vikings got to the Midwest.- Population surge in Europe around the time of the Renaissance (wages go down, unemployment) so people wanted to find a route to Asia and perhaps open trade, more jobs- Vasco was to sail from India to Portugal along the African Coast. He went with 4 ships, came back with two ships but made enough money to pay for the trip 60times over. - Theory that Columbus was Jewish. Very shrewd man. On his third voyage, Columbus predicted an eclipse with some sort of almanac and scared the Indians with it. - No record of Christopher Columbus being baptized at a certain church (he left a will saying that he wanted to leave money for a church that he had apparently been baptized in)- Columbus approached the King of Portugal, acted very arrogant. Approached multiple kings attempting to acquire money to sail to Asia. Believed that he would reach Asia by sailing west.France Rulers - Isabella was from Castile and Ferdinand was from Aragon (?) a collection of kingdoms Spanish then was called Castillo - Toledo then was the major city in Castile not Madrid - Granada had a much more heavily Muslim population (Muslim then were called the Moors)- A battle in France (of Christian people) pushed out the Muslim population who were advancing north.History 202A- John Donovan CSULA- Ferdinand and Isabella had unified Spain at last after 700 year war with the Moors (Decree, any Jews living in Spain had to leave and also leave all their money behind – this was hopes that they convert to Christianity) *Granada was a pretty religious tolerant area compared to the rest of SpainColumbus - Columbus wanted title of Admiral and 10% of profits (?) in his travel to Asia if he were successful. At first he was rejected by Ferdinand and Isabella but then he was chased down by a priest and told that they changed their minds and accepted the request and that they would financially support him. (He has underestimated the distance though, he anticipated 2,000 miles but in reality it is about 10,000 miles)- Columbus did not land on Asia but rather founded a new continent which would later be named America however the name America was made by a cartographer and discovered by that same man.- Potatoes from Peru brought back by the Spanish. - Arrives in Hispaniola, Cuba but thinks of it as Indies/Asia and chains up some Indians to Spain and brings them toIsabella but Isabella told him to release them because her subjects would not be in chains.3rd World- Indians were to be baptized so that if they die then they would not go to hell. Almost the entire Taino tribe was exterminated within a decade. - Indians were forced to pay $225 in gold or so to the Spanish. They had to give up their ornaments handed down from generations, were forced to continue searching through sand for gold, and etc. and were killed if they werenot able to pay the tribute. Columbus led to genocide of Indians.- The slave trade of the Indians led to deaths by disease because of the Spanish giving it to the Indians. Syphilis was also brought over from the Indians to the Spanish who brought it back to Spain.- The Requerimiento – The Spanish would say that Jesus established the Catholic Church and that the Spanish are just following the will of the Catholic Church which is in the end, under Jesus’ orders. If the Spanish do not convert the Indians to Christianity then they would go to hell once they die. The Spanish read a document that said that if you do not convert then your wife, children will be killed. And if they agree to convert then they would have to sign a contract. (There would have needed to be a translator because there was a language barrier) - The Encomienda- The same way a plantation is run. Father Las Casas was a priest who became an encomendero (they were not all real priests). He got into a fight with another priest who was a clergy (those from clergies wereagainst the encomendero because they considered forcing religions onto the Indians) Las Casas & Indians - Father Las Casas attempted to find ways to peacefully convert the Indians. The Indians were interested in mirrors and various things such as being able to write and so forth. *The area, modern day Guatemala, was very war like. - At first this was a successful method of conversion but the native tribes around the area were hostile. - (Pope) Paul the Third issued a statement that mandated the suppression of the Encomienda system *The New Laws 1542-1543, a book that comprised of a collection of

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